BROOKLIN

MAINE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is a draft document pending adoption at town meeting

 

 

BROOKLIN COMPREHENSIVE PLAN, 2002

 

Prepared by the Brooklin Comprehensive Planning Committee:

Bill Hanley, Chairman

Robert Austin

Vivian Flanders

Luke Freethy

Jerry Gray

Jon Hopkins

Brian Larkin

Nancy Randall

Corrine Ricciardi-Jackson

Mike Sealander

Mike Sherman

Susie Strout

Pip Wick

Dorothy Wurman

 

With technical assistance from the

Hancock County Planning Commission

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

SECTION ONE: INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS I-

A. Population

A.1 Purpose 1

A.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

A.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

A.4 Historical Trends 1

A.5 Current Conditions 3

A.6 Seasonal Population 8

A.7 Projected Population 8

B. Economy

B.1 Purpose 1

B.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

B.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

B.4 Recent Employment Trends 1

B.5 Projected Future Employment and Regional Issues 7

C. Housing

C.1 Purpose 1

C.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

C.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

C.4 Recent Housing Trends 1

C.5 Affordable Housing 7

C.6 Dwelling Unit Projections 12

C.7 Regional Housing Issues 12

D. TRANSPORTATION AND ROADS

D.1 Introduction 1

D.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

D.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

D.4 Classification of Roads 1

D.5 Road Conditions Usage and Capacity 3

D.6 Parking 6

D.7 Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities 6

D.8 Public Transportation Facilities and Services 6

D.9 Airports 6

D.10 Rail Service 7

D.11 Local Transportation Issues 7

D.12 Regional Transportation Issues 7

E. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND SERVICES

E.1 Purpose 1

E.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

E.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

E.4 Town Government 1

E.5 Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling 2

E.6 Fire Protection 3

E.7 Police Protection 5

E.8 Ambulance 5

E.9 Education 5

E.10 Town Office 7

E.11 Public Works 7

E.12 Library 8

E.13 Old Town Hall Building 9

F. RECREATION

F.1 Introduction 1

F.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

F.3 Public Opinion Survey and Workshop Results 1

F.4 Current Recreational Resources 1

F.5 Current and Future Adequacy of Brooklin’s Recreational Resources 2

F.6 Open Space 4

F.7 Regional Issues 4

G. MARINE RESOURCES

G.1 Introduction 1

G.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

G.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

G.4 Marine Resource Areas 1

G.5 Public Access to the Shore 2

G.6 Water-Dependent Uses 3

G.7 Harbors & Marinas 3

G.8 Effectiveness of Existing Measures to Protect and Preserve Marine Resources 3

G.9 Regional Marine Resource Issues 4

H. WATER RESOURCES

H.1 Purpose 1

H.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

H.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

H.4 Surface Water Resources 1

H.5 Ground Water Resources 2

H.6 Future Adequacy of Brooklin’s Water Resources 3

H.7 Adequacy of Existing Measures to Protect and Preserve Significant Water

Resources 3

H.8 Regional Issues 3

I. NATURAL RESOURCES

I.1 Introduction 1

I.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

I.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

I.4 A Summary of Critical Natural Resources 1

I.5 Scenic Resources 3

I.6 Assessment of Threats to Brooklin’s Natural and Scenic Resources 3

I.7 Assessment of existing Efforts to Protect and Preserve Brooklin’s

Natural and Scenic Resources 3

I.8 Regional Issues 4

J. AGRICULTURE AND FOREST RESOURCES

J.1 Purpose 1

J.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

J.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

J.4 Agricultural Resources 1

J.5 Forest Resources 2

J.6 An Analysis of Threats to Farm and Forest Land from Projected Development 3

J.7 Adequacy of Existing Measures to Protect Farm and Forest Land 4

J.8 Regional Issues 4

K. HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES

K.1 Purpose 1

K.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

K.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

K.4 Historical Background 1

K.5 Archaeological and Historical Resources 5

K.6 Threats to Brooklin’s Historical and Archaeological Resources 6

K.7 Assessment of Current Protection Measures 6

L. LAND USE

L.1 Purpose 1

L.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

L.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

K.4 Acreage of Developed Land 2

K.5 Land Use Patterns 2

L.6 Recent Land Use Changes 4

L.7 Areas Suitable for Growth 5

L.8 Current Land Use Regulation Measures 6

L.9 Projected Land Acreage Needed for Development 6

M. FISCAL CAPACITY

M.1 Purpose 1

M.2 Key Findings and Issues 1

M.3 Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results 1

M.4 Valuation and Tax Assessment 1

M.5 Current and Future Revenue Trends 4

M.6 Current and Future Expenditure Trends 5

M.7 Municipal Debt and Capital Financing 6

N. SUMMARY

N.1 Priority Issues 1

N.2 Population 1

N.3 Economy 1

N.4 Housing 2

N.5 Transportation 2

N.6 Public Facilities and Services 2

N.7 Recreation 2

N.8 Marine Resources 2

N.9 Water Resources 3

N.10 Natural Resources 3

N.11 Agricultural and Forest Issues 3

N.12 Historical Resources 3

N.13 Existing Land Use 3

N.14 Fiscal Capacity 4

N.15 Key Regional Concerns 4

 

 

SECTION TWO: GOALS, OBJECTIVES, IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES AND

FUTURE LAND USE PLAN

II-A. Goals and Objectives

1. Purpose 1

2. Overall Goal 1

3. Goals and Objectives 1

A. Population Goal 1

B. Economy Goal 1

C. Housing Goal 2

D. Transportation Goal 4

E. Public Facilities and Services Goal 7

F. Recreation and Open Space Goal 10

G. Marine Resources Goal 11

H. Water Resources Goal 14

I. Natural Resources Goal 15

J. Agricultural and Forest Resources Goal 17

K. Historic and Archaeological Resources Goal 17

L. Land Use Goal 18

M. Fiscal Capacity Goal 20

M.1 Development Review 21

M.2 Alternative Funding Sources 21

M.3 Fiscal Planning 22

N. Regional Coordination Goal 22

O. Consistency of Brooklin’s Policies with the State Goals and Coastal Policies 23

II-B. Future Land Use Plan

1. Introduction 26

2. Land Needed for Future Development 26

3. A Future Development Scheme for Brooklin 26

A. The Villages 27

B. The Shoreline 27

C. Interior Areas 28

4. Growth and Rural Areas 28

5. Measures to Distinguish Growth and Rural Areas 28

6. Summary 29

 

TABLES and MAPS

Tables:

A.1 Historical Year-Round Population Trends A-2

A.2 Age Distribution, Brooklin & Hancock County 1970, 1980, 1990 A-4

A.3 Age Breakdown, 2000 A-5

A.4 Change in Household Size, Brooklin and Hancock County A-6

A.5 1998 Median Household Income, Brooklin and Adjacent Towns A-7

B.1 Employment Trends, Brooklin and Hancock County 1993-1999 B-2

B.2 Brooklin & Hancock County: Employment by Industry Sector, 1990 B-3

B.3 Class of Worker, Employed Persons 16 Years and Over: 1990 B-4

B.4 Hancock County & Brooklin Seasonal Unemployment Rates: 1999 & 2000 B-5

B.5 Businesses in Brooklin B-6

C.1 Change in Total Dwelling Units, Brooklin and Hancock County: 1980-2000 C-2

C.2 Change in Dwelling Unit Types, Brooklin: 1980 & 1990 C-3

C.3 Estimated Tenure of Occupied Year-Round Housing, Brooklin: 1990,2000 C-4

C.4 Contract Rent of Renter-Occupied Units, Brooklin and Hancock Co.: 1990 C-5

C.5 Value of Specified Owner-Occupied Housing Units C-6

C.6 Housing Units Lacking Complete Plumbing, Brooklin & H.C.: 1980 & 1990 C-7

C.7 Source of Water, Brooklin and Hancock County, 1990 C-8

C.8 Sewage Disposal, Brooklin and Hancock County, 1990 C-9

C.9 Definitions of Household Incomes C-9

C.10 Average Selling Prices of Residential Units, Brooklin & H.C., 1995-2000 C-10

C.11 Real Estate Sales Data (partial) Brooklin 1994-2000 C-11

C.12 Projected Year-Round Occupied Dwelling Units, Brooklin C-12

D.1 Brooklin Roads & Mileage D-2

D.2 Average Annual Daily Traffic Volume, Brooklin D-4

D.3 Brooklin Accident Summary for Roads with CRF>1, 1996-1998 D-5

E.1 Fire Department Calls for Service E-3

E.2 Fire Department Vehicles, 2001 E-4

E.3 School Enrollment Trends, Brooklin: 1986-2000 E-6

E.4 Projected School Enrollment, Brooklin E-6

E.5 Total Volumes in Friends Memorial Library E-8

E.6 Library Circulation Trends E-9

F.1 Recreation Resources: Brooklin, 2001 F-2

F.2 Guidelines for Recreation and Park Services F-3

G.1 2001 Marine Harvest Licenses, Brooklin G-2

J.1 Prime Agricultural Soils in Brooklin J-2

J.2 Farm and Open Space Taxation Parcels in Brooklin, 1994-1999 J-2

J.3 Tree Growth Parcels in Brooklin, 1994-1999 J-3

L.1 Estimate of Developed Land Acreage L-2

L.2 Soil Potential Ratings for Low-Density Development, Brooklin L-5

L.3 Projected Land Use, Brooklin, 2011 L-7

M.1 State Equalized Valuation and Property Tax Assessment Trends, 1991-99 M-2

M.2 Valuation and Tax Spending (Assessment) M-3

M.3 Tax Spending (Commitment) M-3

M.4 Total Valuation by Type, 1999 M-4

M.5 Brooklin State School Subsidies and Local Expenditures M-5

M.6 Comparison of Selected Expenditures 1991 and 1999 M-6

Summary of Policies Requiring Regional Coordination II-22

Maine’s Growth Management Goals II-23

Maine’s Coastal Policies II-24

Maps: (Note: Maps are not included in this draft, but may be viewed on the HCPC website under Land Use: www.hcpcme.org )

Map 1: Marine Resources and Water Dependent Uses

Map 2: Soil Suitability for Development

Map 3: Existing Land Use

Map 4: Future Land Use

APPENDICES:

Appendix I, Public Opinion Survey & Workshop Results

 

 

 

A. POPULATION

1. Purpose

Population is one of the most basic elements of a comprehensive plan. In order to understand the town's current and future needs, a detailed examination of population characteristics is necessary. For example, the age structure of the population will affect the provision of school facilities. This section aims to:

a. describe Brooklin's recent population trends;

b. discuss how these trends relate to and contrast with those in Hancock County and the state; and

c. review likely future population trends.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin's year-round population increased by about 3.5 percent in the 1970’s and at a 27 percent rate during the 1980s. There was a 7.1 percent growth rate in the 1990s. The U.S. Census lists the 2000 year-round population at 841 and the town is projected to have a population of 946 by the year 2010. After increasing during the 1980s, the number of pre-school-aged children is now decreasing. This may result in declining school enrollments.

Household incomes in Brooklin are somewhat lower than those of Hancock County as a whole. Educational attainment levels, however, are higher than the county average. The town does experience an influx of summer population, but the numbers are hard to quantify. A rough estimate is that the town’s population at least doubles in the summer months.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

About 78 percent of survey respondents wanted the population to stay the same. Twenty-eight percent felt that population growth was a problem, while 56 percent said it was not a problem. Forty-six of the seasonal resident respondents said that they planned someday to make Brooklin their year-round home.

4. Historical Trends

Brooklin's year-round population has fluctuated over the years. In 1850, the year after its incorporation, it had 1002 inhabitants. The remainder of the 19th century was characterized by increases and decreases. From 1910 to 1960, the town’s population decreased steadily.

Since then the town has experienced steady population growth, with the largest ten-year increase occurring from 1980-1990 when the town gained 166 residents, a 27 percent growth rate. Overall, the town’s year-round population increased by 30 percent between 1970 and 1990. According to 2000 Census, Brooklin's population increased by about 7 percent from 1990 to 2000, with 841 residents in 2000. Therefore, it is predicted that Brooklin will continue to experience a steady population growth. Population projections are discussed in more detail in Section 7 of this chapter (see Table A.1).

 

Table A.1

Historical Year-Round Population Trends

Brooklin and Hancock County

Year

Brooklin

% change

Hancock Cty

% change

1850

1,002

--

N/A

--

1860

1,043

4.1%

37,379

--

1870

956

-8.3%

36,360

-2.7%

1880

977

2.2%

37,975

4.4%

1890

1,046

7.1%

37,016

-2.5%

1900

936

-10.5%

37,039

0.1%

1910

936

0

35,515

-4.1%

1920

856

-8.5%

30,457

-14.2%

1930

782

-8.6%

30,760

1.0%

1940

656

-16.1%

32,388

5.3%

1950

546

-16.8%

32,083

-0.9%

1960

525

-3.8%

30,812

-4.0%

1970

598

13.9%

34,505

12.0%

1980

619

3.5%

41,781

21.1%

1990

785

26.8%

46,948

12.4%

2000

841

7.1%

51,791

10.3%

2010

964

12.5%

56,564

9.2%

Source: U.S. Census Historical Records; 2010 estimates for Hancock County by State Planning Office. 2010 estimate for Brooklin by the Hancock County Planning Commission.

.

 

Despite this recent growth, Brooklin has not reached the population of 1,043 that it had in 1860. Although the current year-round population is under its mid-nineteenth century levels, the impact of these residents on the town is more pronounced. First, as will be discussed in Section 5.C of this chapter, average household sizes are smaller than they were, meaning that more homes have been built to accommodate the same population (see Table A.4). Second, it is more expensive to provide municipal services to these homes, which means a greater impact on the tax base. Third, these population figures do not include Brooklin's seasonal residents.

5. Current Conditions

a. Age Characteristics

The change in age distribution in Brooklin between 1970 and 1990 is shown in Table A.2. Overall, the median age decreased from 44 in 1980 to 40.5 in 1990. There was a 77 percent increase in the number of pre-school-aged children over the 20-year period. This was the fastest growing segment of the population. The number of school-aged children (primarily those 5-17 years old) increased by about 15 percent between 1970 and 1990. This trend is significant since school costs are a major component of the municipal budget. Enrollment trends are discussed further in the Public Services and Facilities chapter (Chapter E).

There was a 34 percent increase in 18-44 age group over the 20 year period. This increase may be significant because 18-44 year olds are in their prime child-bearing years. This could lead to future increases in school enrollment. Overall, the proportion of young adults in Brooklin is less (34 percent) than that of Hancock County as a whole (41 percent).

There was a less significant increase of those in the 45 to 64 age group from 1970-1990. In 1990, this group comprised 22 percent of Brooklin's year-round population compared to 20 percent for Hancock County. This group constitutes the pre-retirement group and are less likely to have school-aged children. The age 65 years and older group increased by 34 percent from 1970-1990. In 1990 this group accounted for 21 percent of Brooklin's population, which is considerably more than the county-wide proportion of 15 percent.

 

 

Table A.2

Age Distribution Brooklin and Hancock County: 1970, 1980, 1990

Years of Age

1970

% of total

1980

% of total

% change '70-'80

1990

% of total

% change

'80-'90

% change '70-'90

B

0-4

35

6.0%

31

5%

-11.4%

62

8.0%

100.%

77.1%

R

5-17

104

17.0%

94

15%

-9.6%

118

15.0%

25.5%

13.5%

O

18-44

178

30.0%

191

31.0%

7.3%

268

34.0%

40.3%

50.6%

O

45-64

160

27.0%

165

27.0%

3.1%

175

22.0%

6.1%

9.4%

K

65 +

121

20.0%

138

22.0%

14.0%

162

21.0%

17.4%

33.9%

L

IN

Brooklin Total

598

100%

619

100.0%

3.5%

785

100.0%

26.8%

31.3%

H

A

0-4

2,652

7.7%

2,610

6.2%

-1.6%

3,205

6.8%

22.8%

20.9%

N

C

5-17

8,491

24.5%

8,409

20.1%

-1.0%

8,130

7.3%

-3.3%

-4.3%

O

C

18-44

10,912

31.5%

15,865

38.0%

45.4%

19,057

40.6%

20.1%

74.6%

K

 

45-64

7,596

22.0%

8,465

20.3%

11.4%

9,401

20.0%

11.1%

23.8%

C

O

65 +

4,939

14.3%

6,432

15.4%

30.2%

7,155

15.2%

11.2%

44.9%

U

N

T

Y

Hancock County Total

34,590

100%

41,781

100%

20.8%

46,948

100%

12.4%

35.7%

Source: U.S. Census 1970-1990

Until the release of the detailed 2000 U.S. Census data, 2000 data on age breakdowns are limited. Those that are available are shown in Table A.3. Since the age groups are not exactly the same as those used by the 1990 Census, it is difficult to make comparisons. The following should be noted, however. First, the number of pre-school-age children decreased from 62 in 1990 to 27 in 2000.

Second, while there were 118 persons in the 5-17 age cohort in 1990, there were 171 in the age 5-19 cohort in 2000. This indicates an increase in the number of school-age children. As discussed in the Public Facilities and Services chapter, school enrollment actually has been decreasing in recent years. Most of those in this cohort may thus be older since the Brooklin school is grades K-8.

Third, the number of persons of prime child-bearing years (18-44) decreased from 268 in 1990 to 211 in 2000. The decrease may be partially explained by the fact that the 2000 Census counts the age 20-44 group rather than 18-44. It may also be due to the general aging of the population. The median age in Brooklin in 2000 was 45.9 compared to 40.7 for Hancock County. Brooklin thus has an older population than Hancock County and its median age increased from its 1990 level of 40.5

Fourth, there was a nearly 60 percent increase (103 persons) in the age 45-64 group. Since this group is generally past child-bearing years, it may mean a future decline in the school-age population. Finally, there was a minor (about 5 percent) decrease in the number of persons aged 65 and over.

Table A.3

Age Breakdown, 2000

Brooklin

Years of Age

Numbers

Percent

0-4

27

3.2%

5-19

171

20.3%

20-44

211

25.1%

45-64

278

33.1%

65+

154

18.3%

Total

841

100%

Hancock County

Years of Age

Numbers

Percent

0-4

2516

5%

5-19

10292

20%

20-44

16809

32%

45-64

13889

27%

65+

8285

16%

Total

51791

100%

Source: U.S. Census 2000

.

b. Educational Attainment

The US Census tracks the educational attainment of persons aged 25 years and older. According to the 1990 Census, there were 591 persons in this age group. Of this group, about 89 percent of Brooklin residents were high school graduates or higher, compared to about 83 percent for Hancock County. Approximately 26 percent of this age group had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared to a 21.4 percent rate for the county. Thus, educational attainment levels in Brooklin are slightly above those of Hancock County.

 

c. Household Size

According to the 1990 Census, Brooklin's median household size was 2.43 compared to 2.48 for Hancock County. In 1980, average household size in Brooklin was 2.27, compared to 2.62 in Hancock County as a whole (see Table A.5). In recent years household sizes in Brooklin have remained below the Hancock County average. In the year 2000, household sizes in Brooklin had declined to their 1980 level of 2.27, which was slightly below the county average of 2.31.

 

Table A.4

Change in Household Size, Brooklin and Hancock County

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010*

Brooklin

# households

213

273

337

371

425

# persons per household

2.80

2.27

2.43

2.27

2.27

Hancock County

# households

11,334

15,442

18,342

21,864

22,114

# persons per household

2.97

2.62

2.48

2.31

2.48

Source: U.S. Census;

* Year 2010 estimates for # of households are extrapolations obtained using the following formula: (pop projection for 2010 - persons living group quarters ÷ persons per household)

Household sizes in both nationally and Hancock County have shown a steady decrease between 1970 and 1990 due to factors such as higher divorce rates and the tendency for families to have fewer children. The 1980-1990 increase in Brooklin may be due to the influx of families with young children. Household sizes are important in estimating the number of housing units that will be built in the future. It is expected that further decreases in household size will be minimal. All year-round Brooklin residents are assumed to live in households as opposed to group quarters such as nursing homes, dormitories or other institutions.

d. Income

According to the 1990 Census, Brooklin's 1989 median household income was $20,879. This was about 83 percent of the county median of $25,247 and 75 percent of the state median of $27,854. There was a comparable to the gap in 1979 when Brooklin's median income was $10,156, which was 84 percent of the $12,146 figure for the county and 74 percent of the $13,816 for the state.

According to the 1998 estimates by the State Planning Office, Brooklin had a median household income of $27,663. Table A.5 compares household incomes in Brooklin to immediately surrounding towns. While well below the figure for Blue Hill, its income is comparable to Brooksville and slightly higher than Sedgwick.

 

 

Table A.5

1998 Median Household Income, Brooklin and Adjacent Towns

Town

Median Household Income

Brooklin

$27,663

Brooksville

$27,625

Blue Hill

$33,056

Sedgwick

$26,445

Deer Isle

$28,356

Source: State Planning Office

Economic conditions in Brooklin have improved slightly. For example, the town's 15.2 percent poverty rate in 1979 had dropped to 13.9 percent by 1989. Hancock County had a 10 percent poverty rate in 1989. Poverty is thus slightly more of a problem in Brooklin than in Hancock County.

The various age groups in 1989 had different poverty rates. For persons eighteen years and older the rate was 13.6 percent, compared to a 14.8 percent rate for related children under eighteen. About 16 percent of those related children under age five lived in poverty compared to 12.7 percent of children aged 5-17. The lowest poverty rate, 9.1 percent, was for those 65 years and older. Poverty would appear to be the greatest problem for families with young children. Thus, this is the group that may have the most need for human services programs.

e. Other Information

The 1990 Census figures show mobility rates among Brooklin residents. About 62 percent of those aged five or older had lived in the same house in 1985, compared to 57 percent for Hancock County. About 81 percent had lived in Maine, 23 percent had lived in a different county or state. Similarly, 18.8 percent of Hancock County residents had lived in a different county or state. Therefore, Brooklin residents have a slightly higher rate of mobility than the county as a whole.

Racially, the town was 98.4 percent white in 2000. The U.S. Census reported five residents of Asian origin and two of Native American descent. There were also eight of Hispanic origin, one black, three of other races and three of two or more races.

6. Seasonal Population

The 2000 Census identified 306 housing units for seasonal, recreational or occasional use. Assuming a household size of one and a half to two times the year-round average, Brooklin could conceivably gain anywhere from 1,051 to 1,401 additional residents during the summer. This number could overstate the number of summer residents if some of the summer homes are owned by year-round residents. Other sources of summer population include guests staying in inns and bed and breakfasts and campground residents.

7. Projected Population

Small town populations are very difficult to project because there are a large number of factors affecting growth and decline. Any estimate must be considered general and should be revised at least every 5 years as more up-to-date projections become available from the Maine Department of Human Services.

It appears likely, however, that Brooklin will continue to grow. State Planning Office projections assume continued population growth for Hancock County and Brooklin is a highly desirable place to live within the county. A general estimate of future population growth can be made by assuming that the town will grow at an average of its rate over the past 30 years. This gives the town an estimated population of 964 by 2010.

B. ECONOMY

1. Purpose

An understanding of the local and regional economy is important in assessing a town's current and future needs. The number of local jobs will affect future growth. If the town attracts large numbers of commuters, this could affect traffic patterns and mean that Brooklin is becoming more of a "bedroom" community. Specifically, this section aims to:

a. describe employment trends;

b. describe the local and regional economy; and

c. discuss likely future economic activity in Brooklin.

  1. Key Findings and Issues

While Brooklin is a rural town with limited infrastructure, it does offer some local jobs through the boat building industry. Unemployment rates in Brooklin are generally lower than those of Hancock County as a whole. There is also less seasonal fluctuation than there is in Hancock County.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

During the first workshop there were several comments about the need to build tourism and light, "high-tech," clean industry. While some survey respondents complained about the remoteness from jobs, others saw this as an asset. About 23 percent or respondents said that job opportunities were a problem and 56 percent felt they were not a problem.

4. Recent Employment Trends

a. Employment and Unemployment

The labor force is comprised of those persons aged 18 to 64 who are able to work. According to 1998 figures from the Maine Department of Labor, approximately 453 people, or about 49 percent of Brooklin's year-round population was in the labor force (see Table B.1). These figures, compiled by the Maine Department of Labor, only consider persons employed or looking for work. Therefore, these figures do not include self-employed persons or those who are not looking for work. Overall, unemployment rates in Brooklin are below the Hancock County average. However, as mentioned in the Population chapter, incomes in Brooklin are also below the county average. This may indicate a shortage of well paying jobs.

 

Table B.1

Employment Trends

Brooklin and Hancock County: 1993-1999

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

B

R

Labor force

414

395

374

385

463

453

490

O

O

Employment

392

373

353

371

447

441

472

K

L

Unemployment

22

22

21

14

16

12

18

I

N

Unemployment

Rate

7.0%

5.6%

5.6%

3.6%

3.5%

2.6%

3.7%

H

A C

Labor force

25,490

25,780

26,410

26,850

27,650

27,240

28,740

N O

C U

Employment

23,330

23,710

24,670

25,260

26,010

25,860

27,230

O N

C T

Unemployment

2,160

2,070

1,740

1,590

1,610

1,380

1,580

K Y

Unemployment

Rate

8.5%

8.0%

6.6%

5.9%

5.9%

5.1%

5.3%

Source: Maine Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security

 

b. Employment by Sector

Table B.2 compares employment by industry sector for Brooklin and Hancock County as reported by the 1990 US Census. The industry sector refers to the type of industry the employer operates, not the actual jobs performed by workers. This table refers to all Brooklin residents who are employed, whether they worked in Brooklin or commuted elsewhere.

The largest percent of the Brooklin's labor force, 24 percent, was employed in construction. This is reflective of the importance of boat and home building to the Brooklin economy. This percentage is more than double the proportion of Hancock County’s labor force in this sector.

The next largest employers were education and health services, which accounted for 13 and 12 percent of the labor force respectively. Area schools and heath care facilities (such as the Blue Hill Memorial Hospital) are clearly significant employers. Here again, Brooklin had a larger percentage of persons employed in these sectors than did Hancock County.

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries accounted for about 10 percent of the labor force, roughly double the proportion for Hancock County as a whole. This indicates the importance of natural resources to Brooklin’s economy. Marine resources are discussed further in Chapter G. and natural resources and agricultural and forest resources are discussed in Chapters I and J respectively.

 

 

Table B.2

Brooklin & Hancock County: Employment by Industry Sector, 1990

Brooklin

Hancock County

Category

Numbers

Percent

Numbers

Percent

Agriculture, Forestry, & Fisheries

30

10.0%

1,108

5.3%

Mining

0

0.0%

22

0.1%

Construction

73

24.4%

2,297

10.9%

Manufacturing, Non-durable Goods

2

0.7%

1,406

6.7%

Manufacturing, Durable Goods

10

3.3%

1,254

6.0%

Transportation

19

6.4%

681

3.2%

Communications and Utilities

2

0.7%

399

1.9%

Wholesale Trade

7

2.3%

636

3.0%

Retail Trade

16

5.4%

3,799

18.1%

Finance, Insurance & Real Estate

6

2.0%

913

4.3%

Business & Repair Services

17

5.7%

801

3.8%

Personal Services

20

6.7%

1,089

5.2%

Entertainment/Recreation Services

0

0.0%

175

0.8%

Health Services

37

12.4%

1,958

9.3%

Educational Services

40

13.4%

1,993

9.5%

Other Professional/Retail Services

6

2.0%

1,653

7.9%

Public Administration

14

4.7%

816

3.9%

Total

299

100%

21,000

100%

Source: 1990 U.S. Census: CPH-L-83 Table 2 and CPH-L-81 Table 2

In 1990, about 65 percent of the labor force was employed in the private sector, which is close to the Hancock county average (see Table B.3). About 22 percent employed persons in Brooklin were government workers compared to a 17 percent rate for Hancock County. The county has a higher rate of self-employed persons than does Brooklin. In other parts of Hancock County, there are large numbers of self-employed farmers, foresters and fisher folk.

 

 

 

 

Table B.3

Class of Worker, Employed Persons 16 Years and Over

Brooklin and Hancock County: 1990

Brooklin

Hancock County

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Private Wage & Salary

194

64.9%

14,604

69.5%

Fed/State/Local Govt.

65

21.7%

2,998

14.3%

Self-Employed

38

12.7%

3,325

15.8%

Unpaid Family Member

2

0.7%

73

0.3%

Total

299

100.0%

21,000

100%

Source: U.S. Census

 

Hancock County, as a whole, experiences considerable seasonal fluctuations in its employment rates. Table B.4 compares seasonal rates in Brooklin to the county. For 1999 and 2000, the unemployment rate in Brooklin remained close to its summer levels through December. For example, in December 2000 Brooklin had an unemployment rate of 1 percent compared to 4.2 percent for Hancock County

 

Table B.4

Hancock County & Brooklin Seasonal Unemployment Rates: 1999 & 2000

1999

Unemployment Rates

2000

Unemployment Rates

Hancock County

Brooklin

Hancock County

Brooklin

January

8.2

4.8

8.1

4.6

February

8

5.9

8.1

4.6

March

7.8

5.1

7.5

4.7

April

6

6.4

5

2

May

4.5

1.9

3.7

0.4

June

3.8

4.8

3.1

1.6

July

2.8

1.8

2.3

0.2

August

2.7

1.8

1.9

0.2

September

2.5

3.6

1.9

0.2

October

2.8

0.4

2.3

0.2

November

5.1

2.6

3.7

0.6

December

5.8

2.1

4.2

1

Source: Maine Department of Labor

c. Commuting Patterns

The employment data cited above refer to the entire civilian labor force in Brooklin, regardless of where they work. Many Brooklin residents commute to jobs out of town while residents from other towns commute to work in Brooklin. The 1990 U.S. Census reported a mean travel time of 18.4 minutes for Brooklin residents. This is fractionally lower than the 18.0 minutes for Hancock County as a whole. While 73 percent drove to work alone, about 15 percent worked at home or walked to work.

 

 

 

d. Major Employers

Significant local employers are shown in Table B.5. While there is a diversity of businesses, a few general observations can be made. First, the coastal environment is very important to the economy. This is seen in the boat building and marine supply operations as well as the Marine Environmental Research Institute. Second, tourism is another significant contributor as seen through food, lodging, art galleries and other businesses that cater in large part to tourists.

Third, there are a number of "footloose" businesses. These are operations that could locate almost anywhere such as an Internet company and a magazine publisher. The owners have located in Brooklin because they wish to live in the town.

Fourth, home-based businesses are an important source of jobs. It is important that any land use regulations allow these businesses to operate. Many towns set standards that require such operations to provide adequate parking and meet other standards such as buffering and noise restrictions.

Table B.5

Businesses in Brooklin

Atlantic Boat

Benjamin River Boat Yard

Bridges Point Maine

Brooklin Boat Yard

Brooklin General Store

Brooklin Inn

Brooklin Marine Supply Store

Brooklin School

Hope Mag.

Hypermedia

Maine Coast Experience

Marine Environmental Research Institute

Morning Moon Café

Prin A. Allen & Sons

The Look Out

Wooden Boat

Source: Brooklin Comprehensive Planning Committee

 

5. Projected Future Employment and Regional Issues

As a relatively small town, Brooklin’s future economy will remain dependent on the region as a whole for sources of new jobs. At the same time, it will have its own sources of employment such as the boatyards and small businesses. It is thus important that the town remain involved in regional economic development activities while also taking steps to preserve and assist local businesses. It is also important to anticipate a likely increase in the number of "footloose" businesses and people who, using the Internet, and other communication technology, may connect electronically to a distant employer. More people may start working out of their homes.

 

C. HOUSING

1. Purpose

A comprehensive plan should contain a thorough analysis of a town's housing trends. Critical issues include housing conditions, affordability, and the projected rate of new house building. Specifically, this section aims to:

a. describe recent trends in Brooklin's housing stock in terms of the types and number of units created;

b. discuss housing affordability; and

c. project future housing needs.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin has seen a rapid increase in the number of year-round and seasonal homes since 1970. The number of dwellings between 1970 and 2000 increased by just over 30 percent. As of 2000 there were an estimated 697 dwelling units (year-round and seasonal) in town, compared to 454 in 1970.

Decent, affordable housing is a problem in Brooklin. While recent sales prices are above the county average, there is a greater percentage of homes lacking amenities such as complete plumbing than there is in Hancock County as a whole. Brooklin is part of the Stonington area housing market. Purchase prices in 1998 for the average first-time home were second only to the greater Portland area, where household incomes were 50 percent higher. These costs have made it difficult for young families to buy a home in Brooklin. This is at least one factor in the aging of the population, which is discussed in the Population section and declining school enrollment, which is addressed in the Community Facilities and Services section.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

During the first workshop and in the survey comments concerns were expressed about overly large houses being built on the shore. Thirty-nine percent of respondents felt that affordable housing was a problem and 41 percent said it was not a problem. Fifty-four percent did not want apartments anywhere in town and 52 percent wanted mobile home parks in as few places as possible.

4. Recent Housing Trends

a. Total Number of Year-Round and Seasonal Units

It is difficult to determine accurately which of the housing stock is in year-round or seasonal use. It should be cautioned that U.S. Census estimates of seasonal homes are sometimes subject to error because the Census is taken in April during mud season. This means that some seasonal homes on back roads may not be accessible. Furthermore, because some year-round residents take their vacations at that time of the year, their homes may be reported as seasonal. Additionally, census takers may assume that a vacant year-round house is a seasonal residence.

Between 1980 and 2000, the total number of housing units (year-round and seasonal) in Brooklin increased by about 30 percent, from 534 to 697. By contrast, there were only 454 homes in Brooklin in 1970. There was thus a 53 percent increase in the number of homes in a 30-year period. As seen in Table C.1, the rate of increase between 1980-1990 (24%) was faster than that for 1990-2000 (5.3%).

Year-round housing has increased at a slightly faster rate (31 percent) than seasonal homes (29 percent) between 1980 and 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, however, the number of second homes increased at a slightly faster rate than year-round homes. Brooklin has attracted many buyers of second homes. Year-round residents may previously have owned some of these homes. The overall rate of increase of all dwelling units (year-round and seasonal) in Brooklin has been slower than Hancock County as a whole.

Table C.1

Change in Total Dwelling Units

Brooklin and Hancock County: 1980-2000

 

1980

 

1990

 

2000

% change '80-'90

% change '90-‘00

%

change '80-'00

B

R

Year-

Round

298

375

391

25.8%

4.3%

31.2%

O

O

Seasonal

236

287

306

21.6%

6.6%

29.7%

K

L

I

N

Total

534

662

697

24.0%

5.3%

30.5%

H

A C

Year-

Round

16,944

20,260

23,273

19.6%

14.9%

37.4%

N O

C U

Seasonal

7,484

10,136

12,081

35.4%

19.2%

61.4%

O N

C T

K Y

Total

24,428

30,396

35,354

24.4%

16.3%

44.7%

Source: U.S. Census

 

b. Housing Unit Type

Table C.2 shows that the about 89 percent of the dwelling units in Brooklin were single-family homes in 1990 (detailed data on housing types for 2000 are not yet available). Duplexes accounted for about 2 percent of all units and there were no multi-family units (buildings with more than two apartments). Mobile homes accounted for about 9 percent of the housing stock, compared to just over 4 percent of all units in 1980. In fact, mobile homes had the fastest rate of increase (about 170 percent) of any dwelling unit type during the 1980s. As home construction costs increase, mobile homes and pre-site-built modular homes have become an affordable alternative for many families. Issues on affordable housing are discussed in more detail in part 5 of this chapter.

Table C.2

Change in Dwelling Unit Types

Brooklin: 1980 & 1990

Total Dwellings

1980

1990

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Single Family

504

94.4%

590

89.1%

Duplex

8

1.5%

13

2.0%

Multi-Family

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Mobile Home

22

4.1%

59

8.9%

Total Units

534

100.0%

662

100.0%

Source: U.S. Census (1990 CPH-1-21 Table 7, 1980 STF3A, pg. 10)

 

The quality of mobile homes has improved significantly in recent years. All mobile homes built after June 15, 1976 have been built in accordance with the National Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974. Thus, newer mobile homes do not suffer the physical deterioration seen in many of the older homes. In fact, many of the new mobile home models are doublewide and have pitched roofs. This means that some of the mobile homes recorded by the Census may be mistaken for single-family homes by the casual observer.

Under 30-A MRSA 4358 (the state statute regulating manufactured housing), municipalities must allow mobile homes on individual lots in a number of locations where other single-family residences are permitted. Mobile homes may not be restricted solely to mobile home parks, and towns may not impose overly restrictive standards on parks. Towns may, however, establish design criteria to assure that mobile homes are well sited and look attractive, provided that these standards don't have the effect of banning mobile homes. As of 2001, there are no mobile home parks in Brooklin. Such parks are one potential source of affordable housing.

c. Rental Housing

The 2000 US Census indicates that about 84 percent of all occupied year-round housing units in Brooklin are owner occupied (Table C.3). These figures show that the number of renter-occupied units decreased by about 10 percent, from 64 to 58, while owner-occupied units increased by nearly 13 percent, from 273 to 313, between 1990 and 2000. Brooklin is thus a community of primarily owner-occupied homes.

Table C.3

Estimated Tenure of Occupied Year-Round Housing

(does not include seasonal and vacant units)

Brooklin: 1990, 2000

1990

2000

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Renter Occupied

64

19.0%

58

15.6%

Owner Occupied

273

81.0%

313

84.4%

Total Occupied Units

337

100.0%

100%

100.0%

Source: U.S. Census (1990 CPH-1-21, Tables 10 & 11;initial 2000 print-outs)

According to the U.S. Census, the median monthly rent in Brooklin in 1990 was $313 compared to $325 for Hancock County (Table C.4). Only two units had rents over $500 none had rents greater than $750. Thus, rental prices for year-round units in Brooklin are below the Hancock County average. These data do not reflect the high value of short-term seasonal rentals.

 

 

 

Table C.4

Contract Rent of Renter-Occupied Units

Brooklin and Hancock County: 1990

Brooklin

Hancock County

Monthly Rent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Less than $250

11

17.2

1,072

24.0%

$250 to $499

18

28.1%

2,152

48.2%

$500 to $749

1

1.6%

252

5.6%

$749 or more

1

1.6%

19

0.4%

Rent Not Specified

in Census Data

33

56.1%

971

21.7%

Total

64

100.0%

4,466

100%

Median Rent

$313

$325

Source: U.S. Census 1990, CPH-1-21, Table 11

 

Table C.5 shows the median value of owner-occupied units. Although there were 273 owner-occupied housing units in Brooklin in 1990, a value was specified for only 148 of those units in the U.S. Census. The median value of owner-occupied units in Brooklin was estimated to be $94,100, compared to $85,200 for Hancock County. For the lower quartile, or the bottom one-fourth of units, the value in Brooklin was $61,300 compared to $58,700 for the county.

The value of upper quartile in Brooklin, or the top one-fourth of units, was $142,300, compared to $126,300 for Hancock County. These numbers reflect the diversity of Brooklin’s housing stock. While there are some year-round units in relatively poor condition (see the discussion in Section 4.D below), there are also some very high value waterfront and water view properties. These high values are reflected in recent sales prices (section C.5 below).

 

Table C.5

Value of Specified Owner-Occupied Housing Units

Brooklin

Hancock County

Value

number

percent

number

percent

Less than $50,000

28

18.9%

1,535

17.9%

$50,000 to $99,999

54

36.5%

3,894

45.5%

$100,000 to $149,999

33

22.3%

1,573

18.4%

$150,000 to $199,999

12

8.1%

718

8.4%

$200,000 to $299,999

8

5.4%

517

6.0%

$300,000 or more

13

8.8%

315

3.7%

Total

148

100.0%

8,552

100.0%

Median Value

$94,100

--

$85,200

--

Lower Quartile

$61,300

--

$58,700

--

Upper Quartile

$142,300

--

$126,300

--

Source: 1990 Census, CPH-1-21 Summary Population and

Housing Characteristics, Table 9, Page 71

In 1990, Brooklin had a 2.3 percent vacancy rate for owner-occupied homes compared to a 2.1 percent rate for Hancock County. Normally, a 2 percent vacancy rate is considered desirable for such units. A lower rate may mean that there are insufficient units for sale, indicating a possible housing shortage. A significantly higher rate may mean a depressed housing market. Brooklin's vacancy rate was within the acceptable range.

Brooklin had a 1.5 percent vacancy rate for rental housing, compared to an 8.5 percent rate for the county. A 5 percent vacancy rate is normally considered desirable for rental housing to allow people reasonable opportunities to find lodging. Vacancy rates decreased between 1990 and 2000 for owner-occupied homes. In 2000 the rate was 1.3 percent. The rental vacancy rate, however, increased to 9.4 percent.

d. Housing Conditions

Housing is generally rated as standard and substandard. A standard home is one that is in good condition with basic amenities such as adequate heating, complete plumbing and kitchen facilities. A substandard house usually either requires repairs beyond normal maintenance or lacks some basic amenities.

While there are no data on the number of homes that are substandard due to overall condition, the U.S. Census has data on basic amenities. As noted in Table C.6, due to changes in the methodology of data collection by the U.S. Census from 1980 to 1990, an even comparison of housing units lacking complete plumbing can't be made. The 1980 data include year-round housing units, while the 1990 data include all housing units.

 

Table C.6

Housing Units Lacking Complete Plumbing, Brooklin and Hancock County

1980 and 1990*

Total Year-round

Housing Units 1980

Total

Housing Units 1990

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Brooklin

42

15.3%

104

15.8%

Hancock County

1,766

10.4%

1,752

5.8%

*Note: Due to changes in the methodology of data collection by the US Census from 1980 to 1990, an even comparison of this data can not be made. The 1980 data include year-round housing units, while the 1990 data includes all housing units.

Source: 1980 Census, STF1A, Page 6, Table 47, 1990 Census CPH-L-83, Table 4

 

In 1980, approximately 15 percent of the occupied year-round units in Brooklin lacked complete plumbing, compared to 10 percent for Hancock County (table C.6). The figures show an increase in the number of units lacking complete plumbing in 1990. It is important to observe that the 1990 data includes both seasonal and year-round housing units. This may explain the increase in the number of substandard units. Housing conditions in Brooklin, however, do appear worse than those of Hancock County as a whole.

Another indicator of overall housing conditions is water supply and sewage disposal methods. Here again, Brooklin is worse than the county average. About 13 percent of the units in Brooklin depended on a water source other than a well or public or private system, compared to 7 percent of the units in Hancock County. Generally, such units depend on a spring or an open source of water that may be unsafe. Since the data are for all housing units, some of these units may be seasonal camps that get their water from a fresh water pond or spring and would thus not be considered substandard.

 

Table C.7

Source of Water

Brooklin and Hancock County, 1990

Brooklin

Hancock County

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Public system or private company

0

0%

7,570

24.9%

Individual drilled well

469

71.3%

17,437

57.4%

Individual dug well

102

15.5%

3,127

10.3%

Other

86

13.1%

2,262

7.4%

Total

657

100%

30,396

100%

Source: 1990 Census: CPH-L-81, Table 4; CPH-L-83, Table 4

 

Approximately 6 percent of Hancock County dwellings disposed of their sewage by a method other than a septic tank, cesspool, or public sewer, compared to nearly 15 percent of the units in Brooklin (Table C.8). This means that unhealthy conditions may exist, such as discharges of untreated sewage into water bodies. There are matching state grant monies available through the Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Small Community Grants Program to help install acceptable disposal systems.

 

Table C.8

Sewage Disposal

Brooklin and Hancock County, 1990

Brooklin

Hancock County

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Public sewer

0

0%

7,084

23.3%

Septic tank or cesspool

561

85.3%

21,557

70.9%

Other

96

14.6%

1,755

5.8%

Total

657

100%

30,396

100%

Source: 1990 Census: CPH-L-81, Table 4; CPH-L-83, Table 4

A home is also considered substandard if it is overcrowded, having more than one person per room. Overcrowding, however, is not a problem in Brooklin. The 1990 U.S. Census reported that only seven units (1.7 percent of all occupied units) had more than one person per room. This is slightly lower than the 1.9 percent rate for Hancock County.

5. Affordable Housing

Affordable housing is a concern for most coastal Maine towns. While even middle-income households are affected by the high cost of housing, it is a particular problem for very low-income and low-income households (table C.9). According to 2000 figures, a family of four in Hancock County would be considered very low-income if it earned $18,805 or less, and low-income if its income were at or below $30,100. These figures are updated periodically by the state. According to the 1990 Census, about 46 percent of Brooklin's household's were very low-income or low-income.

Table C.9

Definitions of Household Incomes

Very low income

annual income is less than or equal to 50% of the County median family income

Low income

annual income is more than 50% but less than or equal to 80% of the County median family income

Moderate income

annual income is more than 80% but less than or equal to 150% of the County median family income

Source: Maine State Planning Office

For comprehensive planning purposes, the State of Maine defines affordable housing as decent, safe, and sanitary living accommodations that are affordable to very low and low-income households. To be considered affordable, such housing should cost less than 30 percent of income for renters and less than 33 percent of income for homeowners. The state encourages all towns to assure that 10 percent of all new housing is affordable to very low-income and low-income groups.

Data from the Maine State Housing Authority (MSHA) indicate affordable housing is a problem in the greater Brooklin area. MSHA includes Brooklin in the Stonington area housing market. This market had the second highest average price ($92,500) for a first time home of any market in the state in 1998. The highest prices were in the greater Portland area, where incomes were 50 percent higher.

MSHA uses an affordability index to compare the cost of housing to incomes. An index of 1.00 would indicate that household incomes were sufficient to allow the purchase of the average priced house. The Stonington housing market has an index of 0.86, which is well below the ideal. Construction costs in this market are 27 percent above the state average, which is due largely to land costs according to MSHA.

Actual sales prices of homes as compiled by MSHA are shown in Table C.10. Since these data are from two different sources, real estate transfer tax transactions for 1995 through 1997 and Multiple Listing Service (MLS) data for subsequent years they are not entirely comparable. The MLS data account for only a portion of real estate transactions and do not distinguish between waterfront and non-waterfront homes. The data do show, however, that recent sales prices have been above the Hancock County average.

Table C.10

Average Selling Prices of Residential Units

Brooklin and Hancock County, 1995-2000*

 

Brooklin

Hancock County

Year

Type of Unit

Sales

Volume

Average

Price

Sales

Volume

Average

Price

1995

Waterfront

Non-Waterfront

5

6

$282,500

105,500

121

364

$146,744

101,838

1996

Waterfront

Non-Waterfront

5

8

$506,490

$122,714

130

409

$210,729

$96,048

1997

N/A

--

--

170

$118,923

1998

N/A

--

--

275

$140,376

1999

N/A

--

--

311

$160,376

2000

N/A

4

$299,125

396

$147,332

N/A= not available

*NOTE: Post 1996 data are from the Multiple Listing Service, which does not include all real

estate transactions.

Source: Maine State Housing Authority, Real Estate Transfer Tax 1995-1996, Multiple Listing

Service Compilation, 1997-2000

Other data are available on housing costs are available from a compilation of local real estate sales by a member of the comprehensive plan committee. These are show in Table C.11. These show the diversity of sales prices in town. While some homes sold for over $500,00, there were also a few that sold for under $100,000.

Table C.11 Real Estate Sales Data (partial) Brooklin 1994-2000

Year

Sales Price $

Location

1994

300,000

 

 

315,000

 

 

325,000

 

1995

165,000

 

 

340,000

Rte 175

 

350,000

Naskeag

 

460,000

Naskeag

1996

153,000

Harriman Pt

 

159,000

Naskeag

 

233,750

Rte 175

 

320,000

Rte 175

 

282,450

Rte 175

 

300,000

 

1997

67,000

 

 

72,000

 

 

89,000

 

 

105,000

 

 

105,000

 

 

135,000

 

 

150,000

 

 

170,000

 

 

249,000

 

 

265,000

 

 

400,000

Naskeag

 

500,000

Harriman Pt

1998

112,000

 

 

160,000

`

 

85,000

 

 

107,000

 

 

90,000

 

 

110,000

 

 

460,000

Flye Pt

1999

44,000

 

 

45,000

 

 

75,000

 

 

88,300

 

 

115,000

 

 

168,000

 

 

205,000

Naskeag

 

267,000

Back Rd

 

275,000

Rte 175

 

385,000

Bay Rd

 

685,000

Harriman Pt

2000

46,000

 

 

90,000

 

 

108,000

 

 

125,000

 

 

137,500

 

 

210,000

 

 

215,000

 

 

309,000

 

6. Dwelling Unit Projections

The number of year-round homes needed in the future can be estimated by dividing the projected household population by the projected household size. As seen in Table C.12, a total of 425 year-round households are expected by the year 2010, a 54-unit increase over 2000. Given recent trends in Brooklin, it is likely that most of these units will be single-family homes. These figures, however, do not include seasonal homes. As indicated earlier in this chapter, second homes have been increasing at a faster rate than year-round homes. There is, however, no reliable way to estimate the number of second homes that will be built.

 

 

Table C.12

Projected Year-Round Occupied Dwelling Units, Brooklin

2000*

2010

Projected Population Residing in Households

841

964

Projected Household Size

2.27

2.27

Projected Occupied Dwelling Units

371

425

*Note: 2000 figures are actual numbers from the U.S. Census.

Source: Analysis by the Hancock County Planning Commission

 

7. Regional Housing Issues

The most pressing regional housing issue may be that of affordability. There have been previous attempts on the Blue Hill peninsula to address this issue on a regional basis. For example, the Blue Hill Memorial Hospital sought funds in 2001 to assess affordable housing needs due to the difficulty of recruiting and retaining employees. As a result of this study, the hospital is considering undertaking measures to create a rental apartment complex. The study estimated that at 25 rental apartments were needed and 15 units for purchase by low income households. While this study was focussed on the needs of the hospital, it does indicate that the entire peninsula is facing a lack of affordable housing.

 

D. TRANSPORTATION and ROADS

1. Introduction

A transportation system is one of the most important factors influencing a town's growth. This section will discuss the major transportation issues facing Brooklin. Specifically, it will:

a. discuss the extent, use, condition, and capacity of Brooklin's transportation systems;

b. assess the adequacy of these systems to handle current and projected demands; and

c. discuss any parking problems.

  1. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin has about 30 miles of public ways, of which about 11 miles are state highways and the rest are town ways. One major issue facing the town is the poor condition of Route 175, the only state road in town. Another issue is several road segments with high accident rates. Two particularly hazardous areas are Hales Hill Road north of Hales Wood Road and the Back-Naskeag road intersection.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

There were many survey and public workshop comments about excessive speeding and bicycle and pedestrian conflicts with vehicles. About 64 percent of survey respondents said they would like to see bike lanes on Route 175 and 52 percent felt that other improvements were needed to this road. Forty percent felt that summer traffic was a problem.

4. Classification of Roads

Roads are separated into both an administrative and functional classification. The administrative classification refers to who has responsibility for maintaining a road, while the functional classification refers to the function that the road serves. These two classifications are described in more detail below.

a. Administrative Classification

Administrative classification refers to who is responsible for maintaining a given road. The three major administrative categories are state roads, town roads, and private roads. Towns assume complete responsibility for the maintenance of town roads. Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT) records show that there are approximately 29.75 miles of public road in Brooklin, of which 19.07 miles (64%) are town roads and the remaining are state roads (see Table D.1). The road mileage data on D.1 are important since they are used by the MDOT in determining the state road block grant to the town. The town may want to contact MDOT officials to assure that the state mileage figures are accurate.

 

 

Table D.1

Brooklin Roads & Mileage*

MDOT #

Road Name

Arterial

Collector

Local

Total

01688

East Rd

0

0.240

0.240

01267

Center Harbor Rd

0

0.200

0.200

00445

Flye Point Rd

0

1.390

1.390

00455

Folly Rd

0

0.270

0.270

00442

Hales Hill Rd

0

3.930

3.930

00440

Hales Woods Rd

0

0.840

0.840

00443

Harriman Pt Rd

0

2.680

2.680

01269

Haven Rd

0

0.190

0.190

01189

High Street

0

0.320

0.320

01187

Hillside Rd

0

0.560

0.560

00449

Naskeag Rd

0

3.680

3.680

00451

Poodock

0

0.830

0.830

00440

River Rd

0

1.610

1.610

00444

Black Rd

0

1.500

1.500

0175X

Route 175

0

10.680

0

10.680

01485

0

0.260

0.260

01184

0

0.570

0.570

Total Mileage

0

10.68

19.07

29.75

*NOTE: Does not include private roads

Source: MDOT

b. Functional Classification

Roads are also classified according to their function. The three primary functional classifications used by the MDOT are arterials, collectors, and local roads defined as follows:

arterials Such roads connect major areas of settlement and are generally designed for high-speed travel with limited or restricted access carrying a high proportion of through traffic. The nearest arterial to Brooklin is Route 1 between Bucksport and Ellsworth.

collectors These roads handle internal traffic movements within a town or group of small, rural towns. They are designed for moderate-speed travel and carry a moderate proportion of through traffic. The only minor collector in Brooklin is Route 175.

local These are lightly traveled streets whose primary purpose is to serve residential areas. They are designed for low-speed travel and to carry low volumes of traffic relatively short distances. The MDOT classifies all town-maintained roads in Brooklin as local roads.

A road's functional classification is one of the factors that should be considered when planning growth and rural areas for the future development of the town. Local streets are best suited for either village-residential-type or very-low-density rural development. While some commercial and other non-residential development might be appropriate for an appropriate land use along collectors, it is important that such development be designed so that it minimally disrupts traffic flow.

5. Road Conditions, Usage, and Capacity

An understanding of usage and capacity of Brooklin's roads is important in identifying potential congestion problems and traffic hazards. This information is important in planning for future growth in town. For example, a major subdivision may not be appropriate near a hazardous intersection. Similarly, stricter standards for access management in commercial development may be needed in areas with traffic congestion.

Since Brooklin is a rural town with a relatively low volume of through traffic, it does not experience the same level of traffic problems when compared to many coastal towns in Maine. Nowhere in town does the traffic level approach the capacity of the highways. This will be discussed below in the traffic count and automobile accident data. The town, however, does face some transportation-related challenges.

One major issue is poor maintenance of Route 175. Town-owned roads also require substantial improvement. Many of the town ways are too narrow to allow easy passage of larger vehicles.

a. Traffic Counts

The Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT) conducts periodic traffic counts in Brooklin using portable traffic counters for 24 or 48 hours. These counts are then factored for seasonal variations from counters that run 365 days a year on similar types of highways around the state. An estimate of Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) is then made.

Traffic count data are shown in Table D.2. While data are somewhat limited, they do show an increase in traffic in several places in town. The highest counts are along most portions of Route 175. These counts, however, are still well below those found on arterials elsewhere in Hancock County. For example, Route 3 at Thompson Island in Trenton in 1998 had an AADT of 13,442. Travel at peak summer times was far more than this amount.

 

 

Table D.2

Average Annual Daily Traffic Volume, Brooklin

Location

1979

1988

1991

1993

1996

Rte. 175 at Sedgwick town line

547

Rte. 175 e/o River Road near Sedgwick town line

518

760

Rte. 175 n/o River Road (No. Brooklin)

106

150

Rte. 175 n/o Naskeag Rd.

891

1010

950

1020

810

Naskeag Rd. s/o Rte 175

604

780

800

890

1080

Naskeag Rd. e/o Smith (Back) Rd.

188

390

Source: MDOT 24- and 48-hour traffic counts factored for seasonal variations

b. Accident Records and Road Safety

The MDOT compiles data from files for reported accidents. During the 1996-1998 period, 36 accidents were reported by the MDOT in Brooklin. It is likely that there were at least some unreported accidents.

The Maine Department of Transportation evaluates the accident rate of a road segment through a critical rate factor (CRF). A segment with a CRF greater than 1.00 has an accident rate greater than an average comparable road segment elsewhere in Maine. In Brooklin, several sections of road had accident rates significantly higher than state averages for this type of road/intersection (see Table D.3).

 

Table D.3

Brooklin Accident Summary for Roads with CRF >1, 1996-1998

MDOT #

Road Segment

# Accidents

Critical Rate

3005-3006

So. Blue Hill Road @ Sedgwick town line

3

1.92

2160-2161

So. Blue Hill Road @ Hales Hill & Harriman Pt. Rd.

7

1.87

2154

Naskeag-Smith Road intersection

1

3.24

2173-2175

Hales Hill Road n/o Hales Wood

1

10.44

3003-3004

Hales Hill Road near High Street

1

1.70

2173-2174

Hales Wood Road e/o Hales Hill

2

1.02

2158-2161

Harriman Pt. Road, southern portion

1

1.09

2158-2162

Harriman Pt. Road, east to northern portion

2

1.31

2158-2159

Flye Pt. Road

2

3.12

Source: Maine Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning

The segment with the highest critical rate factor (10.44) in Brooklin is on the Hales Hill Road. In fact, this segment has a rate that is more than three times larger than the next highest segment. Other segments with high CRF’s are the Flye Point and the Naskeag-Smith Road intersection.

Most accidents nationwide are caused by speed, alcohol, or driver inattention. The road sections listed in Table D.3 should be examined for possible improvements to reduce the relatively high accident rates. Specifically, sharp curves could be eliminated. However, improvements in roadway design will not eliminate the danger of vehicle-animal collisions or the tendency for drivers to exceed the speed limit.

A review of accident records for Brooklin indicates that unsafe speed was a factor in nine accidents. Driver inattention was a factor in another eight accidents. Nineteen of the accidents involved a vehicle running off the road and six were collisions with deer. Six were due to head-on or side-swipe collisions and three to intersection movements.

Since overall volumes of traffic in Brooklin are comparatively low and the MDOT faces a backlog of needed highway improvements, it is likely that the state will have a limited ability to address the problems identified in this section. Therefore, it is important to identify priorities that can be discussed with the MDOT. It is also important to consider road safety conditions when reviewing various land development proposals. A development could aggravate traffic problems if driveways and/or access roads are poorly sited.

6. Parking

Parking is inadequate in the general store area and adjacent to the library. It is also a problem at Naskeag Point and the other public access points to salt water. Most towns with town-wide zoning require that any commercial property (or other non-single family residential use) provide adequate on-site parking. These standards may include setback requirements from the road as well as general landscaping standards. They can also assure that there is sufficient turning space on the parking lot so that vehicles do not back out into traffic.

7. Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities

Although no firm numbers are available, Brooklin does attract some bicycle traffic in the summer. Several public workshop participants mentioned bicycle conflicts. The town may want to explore ways to improve the separation of bicycle and vehicular traffic. Federal and state legislation usually provides some funding for such improvements.

One possible improvement could be the provision of bicycle lanes along some highways. The narrow shoulders mean that bicyclists have little room on the pavement when a motorist is passing. Pedestrian facilities could also be explored; increased traffic means that residents are less safe walking along the road. This is a particular problem in the village area. There are also people who walk along Route 175.

8. Public Transportation Facilities and Services

There is no regular public transportation service in Brooklin. Limited service is provided by the Washington-Hancock Community Agency for eligible clients referred to them by the Maine Department of Human Services. The closest year-round scheduled inter-city bus service is in Bangor. Greyhound Bus Lines has regular service to Portland and Boston and offers connections to Aroostook County and other locations. St. Croix Bus Lines provides year-round, daily (excluding Sundays) service between Machias and Bangor with a stop in Ellsworth. Concord Trailways also serves Bangor and points south.

Brooklin's small size limits the potential of any public transportation service. The town could explore the possibility of van pools, park and ride lots and other ride-sharing measures to reduce the amount of commuting to and from town.

9. Airports

Bangor International Airport is the nearest major commercial and cargo airport. An 11,500-foot runway serves scheduled domestic flights and refuels flights from Europe and has customs facilities. There is also short-haul scheduled service to Boston available at the Hancock County Airport in Trenton.

10. Rail Service

The nearest freight rail service is in Bucksport and use is currently restricted to the Champion International mill. As of 2001, there is no regularly scheduled passenger service in Maine, although service is proposed between Boston and Portland. There are also plans to restore freight service on the Bangor to Calais rail line. Various passenger transportation options are being explored for segments of this line.

11. Local Transportation Issues

The major local transportation issues are speeding and safety. It is difficult to enforce speed limits due to the limited police coverage. The town may want to undertake a local road improvement program that would involve developing a planned schedule of improvements over a multi-year period.

Many small towns have found that their road costs have increased due to increased traffic and road maintenance associated with new subdivisions. It is possible through subdivision ordinances to address both on and off-site traffic impacts. For example, the ordinance could require that all subdivision roads be built to town standards. This would reduce the cost of maintaining such roads if they are ever accepted as town ways.

Subdivision ordinances can also address off-site traffic impacts. An increased flow of traffic from a given subdivision can often affect the capacity of a road. The ordinance should require that a traffic impact study be prepared by the developer to determine what specific road improvements may be needed. The developer can be asked to contribute the development's fair share of the costs needed for the improvements. Such measures can reduce the cost of future maintenance on Brooklin's 19 miles of local roads.

12. Regional Transportation Issues

One regional transportation issue is the poor condition of state roads on the Blue Hill Peninsula. Brooklin may want to work with adjoining towns in lobbying MDOT to establish maintenance priorities for roads on the Peninsula.

E. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND SERVICES

1. Purpose

A thorough understanding of a town's public services is necessary to determine any current constraints to growth and identify any growth-related problems that the town is likely to face in the future. A plan should also identify likely future capital improvements. Specifically, this section will:

a. identify and describe Brooklin's public facilities and services; and

b. assess the adequacy of these services to handle current and projected demands.

Town expenditures are discussed in detail in the Fiscal Analysis Chapter. The complete Capital Investment Plan (CInP) is included in the Implementation Section.

2. Key Findings and Issues

One major public facility issue facing Brooklin is the need for a new fire station. Another is declining enrollment in the Brooklin School, there were 67 students enrolled in the fall of 2000 and the facility has a rated capacity of 120 students. The town also faces increased solid waste and recycling costs.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

About 81 percent of survey respondents said that they felt that town government was responsive to their needs. There many positive comments about the library and 95 percent of respondents felt that it was adequate. Concerns were expressed during workshop and in the survey comments about declining school enrollments and the cost of maintaining the school. There was also concern about inadequate police protection.

4. Town Government

a. Current Conditions

Brooklin has a town meeting form of government. Day-to-day affairs are handled by the three selectmen. There are no full-time staff. The tax collector/clerk, treasurer and code enforcement officer all serve part-time.

b. Current and Future Adequacy

Overall, current staffing arrangements appear adequate. However, the work load of the town clerk has been increasing.

5. Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling

a. Current Conditions

Brooklin uses the Blue Hill-Surry Transfer Station for all municipal solid waste disposal and recycling. In 1999 the facility had, according to State Planning Office records, an adjusted recycling rate of 19.3 percent. This compares to a 17.9 percent rate in Penobscot, 36.3 in Bucksport-Orland, 25.9 in Deer Isle and 20.3 percent in Stonington. The facility thus has a lower recycling rate than many adjoining facilities. The recycling rate increased in the early 1990's, but the trend has reversed in recent years. For example, it had a 13.3 percent rate in 1991, 31 percent in 1994 and 33.3 percent in 1995.

Recent and planned changes in transfer station operation are designed to increase the rate of recycling and decrease potential municipal fee increases by the facility. For example, there has been an addition to the recycling building for a reuse area and changes in the layout of the facility to facilitate recycling are planned. Proposed fees for all CDD (Construction Demolition Debris), wood waste and perhaps even municipal solid waste (MSW) will provide incentives to recycle, while closer monitoring of loads by transfer station staff should assure that materials brought into the site go on the appropriate piles.

Materials that are not recycled are generally hauled to the regional PERC incineration facility in Orrington. The Blue Hill facility also boasts the only state-approved CDD landfill in Hancock County. Wood waste is currently burned, but plans to work with a local contractor to grind and compost wood are under consideration.

b. Current and Future Adequacy

The facility faces several challenges in the next few years. First, overall costs are increasing. Brooklin's annual share of the facility's costs have increased by 34 percent from $60,000 in 2000 to $80,500 in 2001. This is due in part to the cost of meeting DEP requirements for placing final cover on a closed portion of the CDD landfill. It is also due to the construction of an addition, purchase of new equipment and increased maintenance costs.

Second, the CDD landfill is filling up more quickly than had been anticipated. It will need to be covered and replaced with other means of disposal before the end of the decade if changes are not made. Current rates of disposal may be reduced by strictly eliminating materials from the landfill that can be disposed of economically elsewhere.

Third, increased operating costs may require other management changes to be made. These could include reduced hours, a disposal fee system and greater enforcement of disposal policies. As of 2001, the transfer station committee is exploring these and other options.

6. Fire Protection

a. Current Conditions

Fire protection is provided by the Brooklin Fire Department. Additional coverage is available through automatic mutual aid arrangements with the Sedgwick and Blue Hill Fire Departments. The average response time to a fire is 7-1 0 minutes. The response time to the most remote part of town is 12-15 minutes.

1).. Facilities

The present fire station is a 2,300-square-foot structure on Route 175, which was built in 1952. It consists of a 512-square-foot training room, a 132-square-foot storage/furnace room, a 32-square-foot bathroom and a 42-square-foot radio room. There are three bays for the storage of vehicles and one vehicle is stored outside. There are no branch stations.

2). Staffing

As of 2001, there were 24 volunteers in the department. Fourteen of these were available to respond to calls during the day. It has been difficult to sustain a sufficient number of volunteers. Training in hazardous materials handling and other matters demands considerable time and many volunteers simply don't have the time.

In addition to fighting fires, the department sponsors fire prevention programs at the school and in day care centers. It also has a junior fire fighter program in conjunction with the Boy Scouts. It would like to expand this program.

Calls for service are shown on Table E.l. The table shows a fluctuation in calls in recent years. Overall, however, there have been an increased number of calls.

Table E.1

Fire Department Calls for Service

Year

Number of Calls

1993

23

1994

23

1995

27

1996

20

1997

33

1998

50

1999

48

2000

32

Source: Fire Department Records

 

3). Equipment

The current inventory of vehicles is shown in Table E.2. As seen, there are two older vehicles that will reach the end of their useful life in three years (i.e., 2004). The department does not foresee the need for additional pieces of equipment. Any anticipated purchases should be to replace current vehicles rather than to acquire additional trucks.

Table E.2

Fire Department Vehicles, 2001

Type

Year

Condition

Years of

Service Left

International 1,000 GPM/1,000 Gallon

Pumper-Tanker

1992

Prime

25

GMC 450 GPM/1250 Gallon Tanker

1983

Good

12

Chevrolet 750 GPM/ 600 Gallon Pumper

1972

Good

3

Ford Aerostar Van, Equipment Truck

1988`

Fair

3

Source: Brooklin Fire Department

 

b. Current and Future Adequacy

The major capital need facing the fire department is a new fire station. The current facility is too small. The vehicle storage area does not allow for easy storage of three vehicles and one vehicle must be stored outside. The bathroom does not meet the standards required for hazardous materials clean-up operations. The radio room and storage room are also too small.

Furthermore, the town does not own the land on which the station rests and the

land is needed by the owner. The department will build a new station on town-owned land. This should address the most pressing fire fighting need in town.

The department indicates that water supplies throughout town are generally adequate for fire fighting purposes. The only areas where additional fire ponds or dry hydrants are needed are in Naskeag and Flye Points. While no emergency vehicle access problems have been reported on town roads, the department reports a problem with overly narrow private driveways. This a problem with both summer and year-round dwellings.

 

7. Police Protection

a. Current Conditions

There is no municipal police department in Brooklin. Police protection is provided by the County Sheriff’s department and the State Police.

b. Current and Future Adequacy

Given the town's rural nature and low demand for police services, current police protection arrangements are generally adequate. There were some concerns raised during the first public workshop about lack of enforcement of speeding laws and a slow response time by police officers. Police protection also received a relatively low 49 percent adequacy rating in the public opinion survey. However, the cost of contracting for any additional police protection makes it very unlikely that there would be an expansion of police service in the future.

8. Ambulance

Ambulance coverage is provided by Peninsula Ambulance Service. It normally

takes about 15 minutes to respond to a call. There are no plans to change this service and it was rated adequate by 56 percent of the public opinion survey respondents.

9. Education

a. Current Conditions

Brooklin students attend grades K-8 at the Brooklin School, which has a rated capacity of 120 students and a current (2000-2001 school year) enrollment of 67. The town is a member of School Union 76, whose other members are Deer Isle, Sedgwick and Stonington.

The Brooklin school has six classrooms with an average size of 576 square-feet. Other facilities include a gymnasium (4,144-square feet), a library (520 square-feet), and cafeteria/art room (98 square-feet). There is also a kitchen (242 square-feet) and a computer lab (72 square-feet). The facility is only six-years-old and in good condition. As mentioned above, it is presently well below capacity. There are currently 22 faculty and staff. There is presently no need for any additional positions.

Enrollment trends since 1986 are show on Table E.3 below. While the total number of Brooklin students, including those in grades 9-12, increased from 1986 through 1998, there has been a decrease since that time. For example, total enrollment was 139 in 1998 compared to 109 in 2000, a 21 percent decrease. The number of K-6 students fell from 72 in 1995 to 54 in 2000, a 25 percent decrease.

Table E.3

School Enrollment Trends, Brooklin, 1986-2000

1986-2000

 

K-6

7-8

9-12

Total Brooklin

1986

51

14

34

99

1987

60

15

27

102

1988

61

18

32

111

1989

56

14

33

103

1990

66

13

33

112

1991

71

10

31

112

1992

75

13

24

112

1993

69

16

29

114

1994

67

23

28

118

1995

72

24

34

130

1996

70

18

43

131

1997

67

23

45.5

135.5

1998

63

21

50

139

1999

66

16

54

136

2000

54

13

42

109

1NOTE: Enrollments are as of October 1 of the school year.

Source: Brooklin School

b. Current and Future Adequacy

The major issue facing the Brooklin school is declining enrollment. This will

affect the per-pupil cost of education. It is reflective of the aging population, as

discussed in the Population chapter.

Data from the Brooklin School (see Table E.4) indicate several more years of declining enrollment. The number of K-6 students is projected to fall to 38 by 2003, which is just over half of the 1995 enrollment of 72. While K-6 enrollment is projected to increase from 2003 to 2006, the 2006 enrollment of 45 is still less than current (2000) enrollment.

Table E.4

Projected School Enrollment, Brooklin

2001-2006

 

K-6

7-8

9-12

Total Brooklin

2001

48

20

37

105

2002

40

24

35

99

2003

38

21

35

94

2004

40

18

37

95

2005

39

21

36

96

2006

45

22

37

104

Source: Brooklin School

10. Town Office

a. Current Conditions

The primary town building, apart from those mentioned under the descriptions of other facilities, is the 2,200 square-foot town office. This facility was originally built as a school in 1925 and was acquired as a town office in 1996.

Major rooms include a 572 square-foot selectmen's/treasurer's office, a 660 square-foot voting area and a 768 square-foot youth program coordinator's office. Other rooms include a 60 square-foot entryway, a coatroom and two bathrooms. There is also an 81 -square-foot record storage area

b. Current and Future Adequacy

According to the selectmen, these rooms are adequate for their purpose both in terms of their size and condition. No additional rooms or space are needed at this time or in the foreseeable future. No repairs are needed beyond regular maintenance and upkeep.

11. Public Works

Road maintenance and other public works tasks are overseen by the road commissioner. No change in current arrangements is foreseen. Most of the complaints about road conditions appear focused on state rather than town roads. About 71 percent of public survey respondents felt that snow removal and sanding was adequate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Library

a. Current Conditions and Usage

The Friends Memorial Library was originally built in 1912 with additions in the 1940s, 1950s and 1999. The present facility has about 2,192 square-feet of floor space plus a basement and crawl space area. Major rooms include a 550 square-foot main room and circulation area, a 294 square-foot children's room and a 765 square-foot back stack area. There is also a 256 square-foot meeting/art exhibit area and an office and bathroom, which are 80-square-feet each.

Year-round operating hours are presently Tuesday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM, Thursday from 10:00 AM to 6-00 PM and Fridays and Saturdays from 10:00 AM to 4-00 PM. During the summers the library is also open Wednesdays from 10:00 AM to 8-00 PM. According to the librarian, these hours are sufficient.

As of 2000, the library had a total of 15,510 volumes and an annual circulation of 17,109 volumes. As seen in Table E.4, the total number of volumes has fluctuated in recent years. This is normal in small libraries where out-of-date books are periodically purged from the collection. Circulation has also fluctuated (see Table E.5). According to the staff, the library is one of the top circulating libraries in the state based on its service population.

 

 

Table E.5

Total Volumes in Friends Memorial Library

Year

Number of Volumes

1993

14,756

1994

15,461

1995

15,799

1996

15,565

1997

15,802

1998

14,985

1999

15,239

2000

15,510

Source: Friends Memorial Library

 

 

 

 

Table E.6

Library Circulation Trends

Year

Volumes Circulated

1993

18,324

1994

18,255

1995

17,946

1996

18,125

1997

18,142

1998

16,396

1999

14,900

2000

17,109

Source: Friends Memorial Library

 

The library has special collections of Maine books and genealogical materials. It also has video and audio collections and a large print book collection. It provides interlibrary loan services to its users and also provides books to other libraries It has one public access computer with Internet services and one computer for staff use.

Staff consists of a full-time head librarian and a part-time assistant librarian. There is another part-time person in the summer as well as someone who fills in when regular staff is not available. There is an approximately 100-member Friends of the Library group and about 7-10 working volunteers who regularly assist in library operations.

b. Current and Future Adequacy

According to the librarian, the library meets all current professional guidelines for a facility serving a town of Brooklin's size. No expansions of staff, services or facilities are presently planned. The only deficiency noted with the building was inadequate parking.

13. Old Town Hall Building

The old town hall, adjacent to the village green, is no longer actively used and

requires substantial repairs. However, it is a building of considerable historic interest and is basically structurally sound. There have been various proposals for its reuse in recent years including conversion to a day care center. Future uses of this building should be considered as part of the overall comprehensive planning process.

 

 

 

F. RECREATION

1. Introduction

A comprehensive plan should contain an inventory of current recreational facilities and needs in a community and determine what may be needed in the future. Specifically, this section will:

a. describe current recreational resources in Brooklin;

b. assess the current and future adequacy of these resources; and

c. predict whether the availability of open space areas for public recreation and access will be threatened by future growth and development.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin has limited recreation facilities and programs. It is unlikely that there could be a major upgrade of facilities due to the town’s low year-round population and the many demands already placed on its tax base. One particular need, however, that the town might want to address is more parking spaces at the various town landings.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

Only 6 percent of respondents felt that recreational facilities were adequate and 39 percent said current recreational programs were adequate. Survey results on public access to salt water are discussed in the Marine Resources chapter.

4. Current Recreational Resources

a. Facilities

Brooklin's recreational facilities are summarized on Table F.1. As seen, these facilities are limited. They consist of an approximately 2-acre Little League (Reggie Sherman) ball field owned by the town and another two-acre ball field at the school. There is also a playground at the school. Behind the school is a walking trail, approximately 0.5 miles long.

The playground has been recently renovated and is good condition. The school ball field appears adequate, but may be under-used. The Reggie Sherman field needs some improvements to the infield area. These might be addressed through reseeding of the grass.

Brooklin has three public landings for surface water access. These are at North Brooklin (also known as Dodge’s Wharf), Center Harbor (next to the Brooklin Boat Yard) and Naskeag Point (see Map 1). The Naskeag site also has some picnic tables. These sites are all natural, there are no man-made ramps. Parking is inadequate at all three sites, particularly at Naskeag where there is heavy use by the fishing community.

b. Recreational Programs and Activities

Recreational programs include Little League and active Boy and Girl Scout programs. Local churches have become more active in providing programs. These include camping trips and roller skating.

5. Current and Future Adequacy of Brooklin's Recreational Resources

The adequacy of Brooklin's recreational resources can be evaluated in two ways. First, the town's current facilities and programs can be compared to recommended state standards for communities of comparable size. The town's projected population can be used to determine future adequacy. Second, the subjective impressions of residents and information gathered through the public opinion survey and public meetings may be used. Since every town is different, the state standards should be considered as general guidelines. Table F.2 shows the recommended state standards for towns under 1,000 population as well as those between 1,000 and 1,500. Brooklin has relatively few of these facilities. Residents , as indicated in the public opinion survey responses, feel that recreational facilities are inadequate. However, only 28 percent of the respondents were willing to improve facilities through increased local taxes.

Brooklin may want to explore options for sharing additional facilities with adjoining towns. The town may also want to develop a long-range recreation plan so that facilities could be upgraded gradually in a manner that reflects the limited tax dollars available.

 

 

Table F.1

Recreation Resources: Brooklin, 2001

Facility Name

 

Owner

 

Water Body

 

Acres

Play-

ground

 

Fields

 

Beach

 

Trails

Parking Capacity

 

Other

Reggie

Sherman Field

Town

No

2

Yes

No

No

?

Little League Field

No. Brooklin

boat landing

Town

Allen Cove

?

No

No

No

No

?

Center Harbor

boat landing

Town

Eggemoggin

Reach

?

No

No

No

No

?

Naskeag boat landing

Town

Naskeag Harbor

1

No

No

No

No

?

Picnic tables

Brooklin School

ball field

Town

No

3

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

?

Source: Brooklin Comprehensive Planning Committee

Table F.2 Guidelines for Recreation and Park Services

Population Criteria

Under

1,000

1,500-2,000

I. Administration

A. Recreation & Park Board or Committee

X

X

II. Leadership

1. Summer Swim Instructor

X

X

2. Summer Recreation Director

X

III. Program

A. Swim Instruction Program

X

X

B. Supervised Playground Program

X

X

C. Senior Citizen Club

X

D. Skiing Instruction Program

X

E. Ice Skating

X

X

F. Community-wide Special Events

X

X

G. Arts and Crafts Program

X

H. Evening Adult Education. Recreation Program

X

IV. Facilities (to include School Area)

A. Outdoor Facilities

1. Community Recreation Area: 12-25 acres w/

ball fields, tennis courts, swimming, ice skating, etc.

X

X

2. Special Facilities

a. Softball &/or Little League Diamond (.75 per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

b. Basketball Court (.50 per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

c. Tennis Court (.67 per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

d. Multi-purpose Field: football, soccer, field hockey (.5 per

1,000 pop.)

X

e. Ice Skating (5,000 s.f. per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

f. Playgrounds (.50 per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

g. Horseshoe Courts

X

 

Table F.2 , continued: Population Criteria

Population Criteria

Under

1,000

1,500-2,000

h. Shuffleboard Courts

X

i. Picnic Areas w/ tables & grills (2 tables per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

B. Indoor Facilities

1. School Facilities Available for Public Use

X

X

2. Gym or Large Multi-purpose Room (.20 per 1,000 pop.)

X

X

3. Auditorium or Assembly Hall

X

X

4. Public Library

X

X

V. Finance (funds for operation and maintenance - not capital)

A. Minimum $6 per capita for part-time program

X

X

Source: Recreation and Open Space Planning Workbook, Office of Comprehensive Planning, Dept. of Economic and Community Development; May 1991.

 

 

6. Open Space

a. Inventory

The publicly owned open space parcel is the town green near the village center. While small, it is an attractive area and enhances the quality of the village. The other open space in town is privately owned. One 28-acre parcel is listed by the Maine Bureau of Taxation, Property Tax Division as being held in open space taxation. There are no other protected open space parcels.

b. Assessment of Threats to Open Space

Since Brooklin has minimal protected open space areas, many areas presently taken for granted could be developed in the future. Even if the outright acquisition of conservation easements isn't possible, some open space areas could be preserved from development through the use of cluster subdivisions should the town decide to pursue this option in the future. Clusters allow for lot layouts that preserve areas of open space by concentrating individual building lots in one portion of a development.

  1. Regional Issues

Given Brooklin’s low year-round population and limited infrastructure, it is important that it approach some recreational issues regionally. For example, after-school recreational programs can be developed in concert with other towns on the Blue Hill Peninsula. The town may also want to become involved in efforts to develop a regional recreational center that would serve all age groups.

 

 

G. MARINE RESOURCES

 

1. Introduction

It is important that a Comprehensive Plan provide a thorough analysis of marine resources. Specifically, this section:

a. describes Brooklin's marine resource areas, facilities, and water-dependent uses;

b. assesses the adequacy of existing facilities, and public access points to handle current and projected use demands; and

c. assesses the effectiveness of existing measures to protect and preserve marine resource areas and important water-dependent uses.

2. Key Findings and Issues

While marine resources still contribute in important ways to Brooklin’s economy, the fishing community faces serious challenges. Harbor facilities lack adequate parking and have not been well maintained. Public access to the water is inadequate to handle current demand. The town lacks a harbor master and a harbor policy.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

There were many comments in the survey and during the workshop about the inadequacy of current docking facilities and public access opportunities to salt water. These comments focused on inadequate parking, overuse, trash and aquaculture. Only 35 percent of respondents felt that town docking facilities were adequate and 42 percent felt public access to the shore was adequate.

Opinions were divided over the need for a harbor master. Twenty-four percent favored hiring a harbor master, 39 percent opposed and 32 percent were undecided. Sixty-one percent supported policies to promote commercial fishing and 59 percent supported policies for recreational boating. Only 13 percent supported the promotion of fish processing.

4. Marine Resource Areas

a. Shellfish

While no data on shellfish resources or harvesting are presently available from the Maine Department of Marine Resources (DMR), local accounts indicate that clams and mussels are harvested "to some extent." There have also been areas that are closed to shellfish due to polluted water. As of 2001 these areas include the Pooduck area, the area from the E.B. White property to Bartlett Brook and Well’s Cove. The closed areas change from year to year. Contamination of shellfish areas is a major concern of the town’s shellfish committee.

b. Marine Fishing Licenses

The licenses listed here are those sold by the Maine Department of Marine Resources to Brooklin residents. These include Brooklin residents who may fish out of town but do not include non-residents who may fish in Brooklin. The public opinion survey indicated that there are many non-residents who fish in Brooklin. The numbers below thus understate the full use of Brooklin’s harbors.

Lobster fishing is clearly a very important source of employment. Commercial fishing and urchin harvesting also contribute to the economy as do sea urchins. While not shown on the table, there is also some worm harvesting.

 

Table G.1

2001 MARINE HARVEST LICENSES, BROOKLIN

License Type

Number

Lobster

39

Commercial Fishing (ground fish, periwinkles etc)

6

Shrimp

1

Elver

5

Seaweed

1

Urchin

7

SOURCE: Department of Marine Resources Harvester Count for 2001

 

5. Public Access to the Shore

a. Publicly owned points

There are three public access points. These are at the Dodge’s Wharf area, Center Harbor and Naskeag Point. There are no floats, ramps or piers at any of these sites. There is heavy use of the Naskeag Point site by commercial fishermen and recreational boaters. There is limited use of the Center Harbor facility due to the lack of parking.

 

b. Privately Owned Access Points

There are no privately owned access points that are open to the general public.

c. Adequacy of Access

The public opinion survey revealed that only 35 percent of respondents felt that town docking facilities were adequate. The lack of parking is one of the major concerns. While parking is adequate at Naskeag Point, there are 2 parking spots at Dodge’s Wharf and "hardly any" parking at Center Harbor.

6. Water-Dependent Uses

Water-dependent uses are defined as those uses that would require direct access to coastal waters and cannot be located away from these waters. These would include fishing operations, piers, and the like. Boat building is a major contributor to Brooklin’s economy. Since the boatyards require at least some access to coastal waters, their needs should be considered in evaluating water-dependent uses.

Brooklin’s current water-dependent uses are shown on Map 1. These are primarily boat yards. The remaining uses are harbors and boat landings.

7. Harbors & Marinas

a. Facilities

There are 20-30 moorings at Naskeag and over 100 at Center Harbor. There are presently no town mooring plans or regulation of moorings. Atlantic Boat Company also has about 25 moorings adjacent to Flye Point. These are leased to the public on a fee basis.

b. Adequacy

All town landings require major improvements. One way to determine the full extent of needs would be to conduct an in-depth assessment of the harbor facilities. The town has not made major investments in its harbor facilities in recent years. They have many deficiencies that need to be addressed.

8. Effectiveness of Existing Measures to Protect and Preserve Marine Resources

The primary way that marine resources are protected in Brooklin is through the shoreland zoning ordinance. This is the basic ordinance that all Maine towns are required to have. When Brooklin is revising its land use ordinances, it may also want to review its current treatment of water quality concerns such as storm water runoff from development. The ordinance revisions could call for stricter attention to erosion and sedimentation prevention in new subdivisions. Site plan review procedures could stress standards for the extent of impervious surface and drainage. Such measures could build on those already in place.

Brooklin also has to decide if it needs a harbor policy and a harbor master. Overall, it is becoming more difficult for Brooklin to retain its fishing heritage. The higher price of land, competition for public access and federal fishing restrictions are making fishing less attractive. One specific measure that could be considered is shoreland zoning restrictions to protect water-dependent uses from being converted to other uses (such as a fish pier being converted to shorefront condominiums). There is presently no such zoning in town, which means that is little protection from water-dependent uses being converted to other uses.

9. Regional Marine Resource Issues

Brooklin shares its marine resources with other communities adjoining Blue Hill Bay and Eggemoggin Reach. It thus may want to address issues such as water quality and public access cooperatively with these towns.

H. WATER RESOURCES

1. Purpose

This section will present an overview of Brooklin's water resources. An understanding of water resources is important since all residents must have a reliable source of drinking water. Specifically, this question will:

a. describe the characteristics, uses, and quality of Brooklin's significant water resources;

b. predict whether the quantity or quality of significant water resources will be threatened by the impacts of future growth and development; and

c. assess the effectiveness of existing measures to protect and preserve significant water resources.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin residents depend primarily upon bedrock wells for their drinking water. There are no serious threats to the town’s ground water resources. Since there are no lakes or great ponds in town, the major surface water resources are salt water. There are only two licensed overboard discharges in town and no known threats to surface water resources.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

About 77 percent of respondents favored ordinances to protect aquifers. Only 16 percent said that potable water was a problem. About 15 percent felt that air and water quality were problems.

4. Surface Water Resources

a. Fresh Water Bodies and Watersheds

There are no great ponds (naturally made fresh water ponds greater than 10 acres) in Brooklin. There are about a dozen small ponds, some of which are man-made. These small ponds are not subject to state laws such as the Natural Resources Protection Act. Lake and great pond protection is thus not an issue in Brooklin.

b. Marine Water Quality

The DEP classifies all surface water in Maine. These classifications set the standards allowed for discharges of pollutants. The majority of waters in the state, including those adjacent to Brooklin, are classified "SB," which is the second highest classification. Per DEP standards, habitats in these waters "shall be characterized as unimpaired." No discharges that would cause closure of open shellfish areas are permitted. Dissolved oxygen contents are set at 85 percent.

c. Threats to Surface Water Resources

There are two types of pollution that threaten surface water: point and non-point. Point pollution is attributable to a specific source such as a pipe discharging into a stream. Non-point pollution comes from a general source such as stormwater runoff that carries oil spilled on a road into a stream.

The only known source of point pollution in Brooklin are two licensed overboard discharges. These are private residences who discharge of their treated wastewater into the water. DEP licensing standards should assure that there is no threat of pollution.

There has been no inventory of non-point sources in Brooklin. These are likely to occur where there are large areas of impervious surfaces. Other possible sources include roads that are subject to erosion or areas where there has been major clearing of vegetation.

5. Ground Water Resources

As mentioned in the Housing chapter, the majority of Brooklin residents depend on individual wells for their water supply. There is, however, a small communal water supply serving the Haven Colony. Areas that normally yield large quantities of water to wells are called sand and gravel aquifers. There are, however, no sand and gravel aquifers in Brooklin. Rather, most wells in Brooklin are drilled in bedrock. Bedrock wells generally yield from about 10 to 50 gallons per minute (gpm). Normally, a well yielding about 1 gpm is considered sufficient for domestic use.

Overall, there are no problems in Brooklin with ground water supply. There have been some complaints of hard water. Also, there have been isolated cases of inadequate wells. It is not known if these are due to poorly drilled wells or other problems.

a. Ground Water Quality

The DEP has rated Brooklin's ground water as GW-A. This is the highest DEP classification and it applies to all ground water in the state unless specifically noted otherwise. DEP standards mandate that these waters be of such quality that they can be used for public water supplies. They shall, per DEP standards, be free of radioactive matter or any matter that affects their taste or odor. Brooklin’s 1979 Land Use Data Base noted that some of the wells in the Harriman Point area had a high iron content.

 

b. Threats to Ground Water

Given the low incidence of non-point pollution in Brooklin and the overall low density of the population, there are no significant threats to ground water.

6. Future Adequacy of Brooklin's Water Resources

Given the relatively slow rate of growth projected for Brooklin, current drinking water supplies should be adequate for the foreseeable future. The only possible problem would be threats to individual wells from contamination.

7. Adequacy of Existing Measures to Protect and Preserve Significant Water Resources

Brooklin's current measures to protect water resources consist of the shoreland zoning ordinance and the subdivision review standards. Its current site plan review ordinance has standards to protect against water pollution, assure adequate sewage disposal and storm water drainage. If the town decides to enact town-wide zoning, it could develop additional measures to protect water quality. These could include standards for maximum impervious surface, drainage provisions and storage of pollution-causing materials.

8. Regional Issues

There are no immediate regional water resource issues facing Brooklin. The town does not share any sand and gravel aquifers with a surrounding town. Given the relatively low rates of growth projected for the town, there is no foreseeable likelihood of the town needing to tap into a public water system from a surrounding town.

 

I. NATURAL RESOURCES

1. Introduction

A comprehensive plan should provide an overview of a town's natural resources. These resources are important to the town in several ways. First, they provide critical wildlife and fisheries habitats. Second, inappropriate development in environmentally fragile areas could be costly to the entire town. For example, disruption of natural drainage patterns could increase the chances of flooding. Finally, these resources are an essential part of the Brooklin's rural character.

Specifically, this chapter will:

a. describe Brooklin's critical natural and scenic resources;

b. predict whether these resources will be threatened by the impacts of future growth and development; and

c. assess the effectiveness of existing efforts to protect and preserve these resources.

2. Key Findings and Issues

As a coastal community, Brooklin has a diversity of animal and plant life. Its coastline is an important habitat for waterfowl. The town is also the habitat of the threatened Allegheny Vine plant. There are five or fewer known occurrences of this plant in the state. Upland areas are habitats for deer, moose and black bears.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

There were many positive comments in the survey and during the workshop about Brooklin’s natural resources and beauty. Eighty-one percent of the survey respondents supported measures to protect wildlife habitats. Protection of black fly habitats appeared to have considerably less support. There was also strong support for protecting scenic views (81 percent) and wetlands (79 percent).

4. A Summary of Critical Natural Resources

Brooklin's major natural resources are discussed below. There is also further discussion of marine-related resources in the Marine Resources chapter and of farm and forest land in the Agricultural and Forest Resources chapter.

 

a. Wetlands

Wetlands are one of the most critical natural resources. They often serve as aquifer recharge areas, allowing underground water supplies to be recharged. They are also critical wildlife and bird habitats. Wetlands are an important part of nature's drainage system since they hold storm water. Areas that have experienced extensive filling of wetlands often face increased flooding problems. Wetlands are also important as breeding areas for waterfowl and habitat for other wildlife.

There are four major wetlands in Brooklin. These are the Great Meadow, the Salt Marsh, the Great Heath and the one near the Harriman Point Road. An analysis of wetland maps indicates that there about 5,346 acres of hydric soils wetlands in town or 45 percent of the town’s total land area of 11,882 acres (see Map 2). While not all hydric soils are necessarily classified as wetlands their presence does indicate that a large portion of town’s land area is wetlands. Brooklin’s wetlands are important habitats for aquatic animals such as beaver and muskrat. These areas are also important breeding areas for waterfowl.

b. Wildlife Habitats

Tidal flats are important wintering areas for waterfowl. Birds found on the flats in winter include Bufflehead, Goldeneye, Black Duck and Scaup. The upland environment, which includes mature forests, pioneer hardwood stands and blueberry barrens supports deer and an occasional black bear or moose. Other animals found in this environment include ruffed grouse, pheasant, woodcock, hare and squirrel. The entire central section of Brooklin would be considered an upland environment.

c. Fishery Resources

Lobsters, scallops and fin fish are found in the open waters of Eggemoggin Reach and Blue Hill Bay, while clams and sea worms are found on the tidal flats. Marine resources are discussed further in the Marine Resources chapter.

d. Rare Plants and Natural Areas

Under the Natural Areas Program, the state Department of Conservation's Natural Resources Information and Mapping Center maintains records of rare plants and other natural features of special concern. It has identified two rare or exemplary botanical features.

The first is adlumia fungosa or Allegheny Vine. It is rated S1 for its state rarity and is considered a threatened species. The S1 category refers to a critically imperiled species in Maine with fewer or five known occurrences or one that faces extirpation from Maine. This plant is located in the Torrey Island-Gangway Ledge area. It is the only member of the climbing fumitory genus in the region.

The second is carex silicea Olney or sea beach sedge. It is rated S3. This category refers to species that are rare in Maine but not sufficiently rare to be considered threatened or endangered. It has been reported in 24 towns in Maine. It is difficult to identify without microscopic examination. It is located in various salt marshes.

The exact location of these plants is kept confidential, but information can be obtained from the Department of Conservation. If the planning board believes that a rare plant might be threatened by a proposed development, it can send a map of the area to the department. It could also have the applicant hire a botanist to do a survey of the area. It is important to keep in mind that land use changes in the general area where the plant is located may threaten its existence. It is thus important not only to protect the specific site, but the surrounding area as well. Both plants are in areas that are unlikely to be developed.

Since there is no record of a systematic inventory having been conducted of the town's natural features, it is possible that there are other environmentally valuable areas that have not been identified. Such an inventory could be conducted by interested citizens under the guidance of the Natural Areas Program.

While data are not presently available from the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW), the department normally maps features such as deer wintering yards, bald eagle habitats and essential and significant wildlife habitats. Presence of such features complicates the land use permit process. For example, any subdivision within an essential habitat of a threatened or endangered species in Maine must be reviewed by the MDIFW.

5. Scenic Resources

Brooklin has many scenic views. The combination of hills, coves, bogs and blueberry fields assures a rich variety of views. Such views are an integral part of the town's rural character. Areas of particular scenic value are the library area, Center Harbor and Naskeag and Flye Points.

6. Assessment of Threats to Brooklin's Natural and Scenic Resources

While there are no immediate threats to Brooklin's natural and scenic resources, there is the risk of longer-term damage through future development. This is particularly the case in those areas not protected by shoreland zoning or by state essential habitat designation. A poorly planned subdivision development could disrupt views from an adjoining property or disrupt an important wildlife area.

7. Assessment of Existing Efforts to Protect and Preserve Brooklin's Natural and Scenic Resources

Brooklin's shoreland zoning ordinance meets all state requirements. This means that some protection is offered to resources along the shore. There is, however, only incidental protection to resources outside of the shoreland zone since there is no town-wide zoning. The town may want to consider other measures to protect natural resources if it enacts town-wide zoning. These could include larger minimum lot sizes and stricter setback standards in areas where high-value natural resources are present.

Greater protection would also be possible through revisions to the subdivision ordinance. These could involve creative lot-layout schemes such as clustering. Often, it is possible to make minor changes in the location of lots in a subdivision to minimize the disruption or views from a neighboring property or public road.

8. Regional Issues

As a peninsula, Brooklin only adjoins Sedgwick and Blue Hill on the land. The town also may want to solicit comments from these towns if there were a major subdivision or other land development activity adjacent to the town line that could affect a rare natural resource. Similarly, the planning board could ask for an opportunity to comment on large-scale development proposals in either adjoining town. This would allow an opportunity for a more thorough assessment of potentially adverse environmental impacts on natural resources.

J. AGRICULTURAL and FOREST RESOURCES

1. Purpose

This section presents an overview of Brooklin's Agricultural and Forest Resources. Specifically, this section will:

a. describe the extent of Brooklin's farms and forest lands;

b. predict whether the viability of these resources will be threatened by the impacts of growth and development; and

c. assess the effectiveness of existing measures to protect and preserve important farm and forest resources.

  1. Key Findings and Issues

About 82 percent of Brooklin’s approximately 12,000 acres of land area is forested. The forests are a mixture of hard and softwoods. While the state requirements for placing land under the preferential tree growth tax classification have become more restrictive, the acreage held under this classification in Brooklin has increased slightly in recent years. Forestry is thus an important land use in Brooklin.

The most recent estimate is that there are 17 farms in Brooklin. Most of these are devoted to raising blueberries. Only about 16 percent of Brooklin’s soils are ideally suited for agriculture and about three-quarters of these would require either drainage or irrigation. The focus in Brooklin should thus be on maintaining the current level of farming rather than looking toward a significant expansion.

 

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

There were many positive comments about Brooklin’s farm and forest land. About 77 percent of respondents supported measures to protect farmland. This is similar to the 76 percent support rate for protecting forest land.

4. Agricultural Resources

Brooklin has relatively little agricultural land. According to the 1979 Brooklin Land Use Data Base, there were about 246 acres of farmland in town, about 2 percent of the total land area of 11,882 acres. As of 2001, Hancock County Soil and Water Conservation District records show that there are 17 farms in Brooklin that participate in USDA-sponsored programs. These include farming operations with an annual farm-derived income of $1,000 or more. It is possible that there are few additional farms that do not participate in these programs. The major crop is blueberries although there are also some vegetable and meat and poultry farms.

The United States Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has an estimate of prime agricultural soils. This estimate is based on the suitability of the soils for farmland, rather than their actual use. The rating is derived from factors such as types of soils, drainage and the absence of rocks. Some of these parcels may not be farmed. Similarly, some farms in Brooklin may not be on prime agricultural soils.

The NRCS records show that there are 1,975 acres of prime agricultural soils in Brooklin. This represents about 16 percent of Brooklin's land area. As seen in Table J.1, only a portion of these soils (314 acres) are considered prime if they are not drained or irrigated.

Table J.1

Prime Agricultural Soils in Brooklin

Category

Acreage

Percent of Total Land Area

Prime Farmland

314

2.6%

Prime Areas If Drained

582

4.8%

Prime Areas If Irrigated

1,039

8.7%

Total

1,935

16.2%

Source: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, March 2001

Another way to estimate current amounts of agricultural land is through the acreage of land held under the Farm and Open Space Act. This act allows owners of farmland property tax breaks for parcels over five contiguous acres if they meet certain conditions such as a minimum farm-derived income. Normally, qualifying farmers with a long-term commitment to farming would participate in this program. A review of state records indicates that there has been a slight increase in the acreage held under this tax classification (see Table J.2).

 

Table J.2

Farm and Open Space Taxation Parcels in Brooklin, 1994-1999

Farmland

Open Space Land

Number of Parcels

Acres

Number of Parcels

Acres

1994

5

84

1

3

1995

5

84

1

3

1996

5

84

5

3

1997

5

84

5

3

1998

6

97

1

3

1999

6

97

1

28

Source: Municipal Valuation Return Statistical Summary, Maine Bureau of Taxation Property Tax Division, Part IV

5. Forest Resources

Forest is the primary land use cover in Brooklin. The 1979 Land Use Data Base indicated that 82 percent of the land in town was forested. Given the slow rate of development in most of the town since 1979, it is unlikely that there has been any significant decrease since that time. It is more likely that some abandoned fields have reverted to forest, thereby increasing the proportion of forested land.

The forests are a mix of temperate deciduous and northern coniferous trees. Broad-leafed deciduous trees - maple, oak, elm, and beech - are found together with northern coniferous trees, spruce, fir, pine, and larch. Abandoned fields, forest fires, and timber harvesting have combined with the process of succession to produce diverse forests of mixed age.

One source of information on Brooklin's forest resources is data on land held under the Tree Growth Taxation Act. This classification is similar to the Farm and Open Space Act in that owners of forested parcels meeting certain conditions may have their property assessed as forest land rather than for its potential developed value. These conditions became more restrictive in 1989 and were further amended in 1993.

Under the most recent amendments, the definition of forest land no longer includes parcels of less than 100 acres managed solely for personal use. If such properties are to remain in tree growth, the owner must manage the parcel according to a commercial forest management and harvest plan. While there have been some fluctuations in tree growth acreage, the overall trend shows an increase (see table J.3).

Table J.3

Tree Growth Parcels in Brooklin, 1994-1999

Year

Number of Parcels

Softwood Acres

Mixed-wood Acres

Hardwood Acres

Total

Parcels Withdrawn

1994

16

129

561

103

793

3

1995

16

116

416

95

627

0

1996

29

137

692

83

912

0

1997

25

155

692

83

929

0

1998

25

140

677

83

899

1

1999

25

155

692

83

929

0

Source: Municipal Valuation Return Statistical Summary, Maine Bureau of Taxation Property Tax Division, Part III

6. An Analysis of Threats to Farm and Forest Land from Projected Development

While there are no immediate threats to Brooklin's farmland, it is possible that more will be developed for other uses. Open fields are particularly attractive to developers since less site preparation is required. One of the major factors influencing the decision to sell farm and for development is the potential values of crops.

Given the large amount of forest land in Brooklin, it is unlikely that development would pose a serious threat to forest resources. Rather, small areas may be cleared for house lots. It is unlikely that the remote, forested areas that are not served by year-round roads would receive any significant development. Another threat is excessive clear cutting. To date, however, most timber harvesting in Brooklin has been on a small-scale basis.

7. Adequacy of Existing Measures to Protect Farm and Forest Land

The only measure presently in effect to protect forest land is tree growth taxation. As mentioned above, there is limited participation by Brooklin farmers in the state's farmland taxation program. The town's land use regulations offer no specific measures to protect farm or forest land.

Some towns have enacted land use ordinance measures to increase protection of agricultural and forest resources. As Brooklin formulates its forest and agricultural policies, it may want to review what other towns have done. Some towns have enacted farm and forestry districts, in which relatively large lot sizes are set (as much as ten acres) and the use of cluster development is encouraged. The clusters can allow houses to be built on those portions of the parcel that are not farmed.

Other communities have worked closely with local land conservation groups in identifying farm parcels from which voluntary easements could be acquired from interested farmers. While a parcel under conservation easement will have a lower tax value, such parcels are usually a long-term tax advantage to a town. First, the value of properties adjoining a conservation parcel normally increases. Second, the tax revenue produced from the parcel if it were developed would probably be less than the cost of the providing municipal services such as schools to the new homes built on the site.

8. Regional Issues

One of the key ways to keep land in farm and forest uses to allow owners of this land to yield a decent income. This can be facilitated through regional efforts to develop new markets for locally grown foods and forest products. The town thus may want to encourage local farmers and forest lot owners to participate in regional efforts that are currently underway.

K. HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES

1. Purpose

A comprehensive plan should identify critical historical and archaeological resources. These resources are important not only for their role in Brooklin's history, but also for their present-day value. Historic buildings and sites add to the town's quality of life and their presence helps maintain property values.

Specifically, this section will:

a. present a brief history of the town;

b. describe Brooklin's historical and archaeological resources;

c. assess threats to these resources; and

d. assess the effectiveness of existing measures to protect and preserve these resources.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin has a large number (59) of known pre-historic (i.e., those predating European settlement) sites along its coast. However, only half of the coastline has been surveyed for sites so the actual number of sites may be considerably larger. While the town has many buildings of historic interest, only the E.B. White house and the IOOF hall are on the National Register of Historic Places. There are many other sites that may be eligible for listing.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

There were many favorable comments in the survey about old houses in town and the Odd Fellow’s Hall. There were similar comments during the workshop.

4. Historical Background (Adapted from the 1979 Land Use Data Base)

a. Pre-history

The earliest archaeological remains found in this area are attributed to the prehistoric Red Paint People, more recently known as the Moorehead People. They are presumed to have migrated from the Saint Lawrence River Valley and inhabited the area for 1,300 years, between 3,000 B.C.E. and 1,700 B.C.E. The name, "Red Paint," is derived from the heavy concentrations of red ochre (iron oxide) found in the burial sites.

A second influx occurred around 1,700 B.C.E., this time from southern New England. The Algonquins, as this group is known, were of the Susquehanna tradition. They used different tools and exploited different animals than the Mooreheads. From this second migration arose the numerous tribes, known collectively as the Abnaki, that inhabited the Maine coast at the time of European discovery.

These tribes, the Penacooks, Sacos, Androscoggins, Kennebecs, and the Penobscots are responsible for most of the shell heaps and village sites found along the Maine coast. They wintered on the coast eating shellfish, and then moved inland during the summer, up navigable waterways, to take advantage of fish runs. The coming of the Europeans drastically changed the old Indian patterns. To accommodate the European fur trade and summer navigation the Indians started wintering inland to obtain furs and summering on the coast to trade with the Europeans.

b. European exploration and early settlement

The coming of the white man has determined the present character of the area. The first recorded explorer to sail along the Maine coast was Sabastian Cabot in 1498; however, recent archaeological discoveries indicate that Norse voyagers may have visited Naskeag as early as the 11th century. Cabot was followed by many other early explorers. Samuel de Champlain mapped the Penobscot Bay in 1604. He was in the expedition of Pierre du Guast, to whom King Henry IV of France granted the land known as Acadia, giving du Guast the title, Sieur de Monts. Captain Weymouth followed in 1605, exploring the land and establishing a claim for England.

The early French settlers in this area may have been trappers and Indian fur traders. There is record of two French families living on Naskeag Point as early as 1688. The first English settlers, however, were involved in fishing on the Grand Banks. As this was initially carried out from England, temporary summer fishing stations were established on offshore islands and on several points. The first English trading post was built in 1623 at Pentaquoet, now Castine.

Conflict over land claims between the French and the English was to make what is now Hancock County a no-mans-land during the first half of the 18th century. Because of the turmoil, no major settlement was to take place in the area until Wolfe captured Quebec from the French in 1759.

Fort Pownal, which was built by colonial Americans in 1759, brought the first permanent settlers into the area. The first settlers in Brooklin were from York County. They probably arrived in 1760, settling on the most suitable farmland.

Another major factor in the settlement of the area was the land grant by the Massachusetts General Court in 1762, subject to approbation by the King of England, to David Marsh and 353 others for six townships, each six miles square, lying between the Union River to the east and Penobscot Bay to the west. The six townships were: Township #1, Bucksport; Township #2, Orland; Township #3, Penobscot; Township #4, Sedgwick; Township #5, Blue Hill; and Township #6, Surry. In the summers of 1762 and 1763, the townships were surveyed and the lines laid out. In 1763, settlers arrived from Essex County, only to find that "squatters" from York County had preempted the best land. The dispute between the proprietors of the townships and the squatters was settled after the revolution by the Massachusetts General Court by granting land lots to the settlers from York County.

Originally part of Sedgwick, Brooklin was incorporated June 9, 1849, after an unsuccessful attempt in the Legislature the year before. The town was at first called Port Watson, but the name was changed to Brooklin a month after incorporation. The name, Brooklin, is said to have come from the fact that a brook separates the town from Sedgwick.

c. Nineteenth Century Industry and Commerce

Many of the early settlers came to the area to find farmland as the available land in Massachusetts was quickly diminishing. Although the majority of the land was not suitable for farming, by clearing trees and rocks, families could produce enough to supply their own needs, with occasional surpluses providing a limited income. Before the blight of 1845, potatoes were a cash crop and were shipped to Boston. Just the same, farming in Brooklin rarely rose much above subsistence level.

Except for plowing and planting in the spring and harvesting in the fall, the men were free for other activities, most notably fishing and coasting in the summer and wood cutting and ship building in the winter, both major concerns in the nineteen century. The first ship to be built in Brooklin was the schooner, the Trial, built about 1790 at "the head of Herrick Bay". An old ledger in the Sedgwick-Brooklin Historical Society Collection records that the Trial carried firewood to Salem and exchanged it for provisions.

Most of the ships built in Brooklin were "Down-Easters" used in the coastal trade, traveling to Rockland, Bangor, Portland, Boston and New York. Deeper draft schooners and brigs were also built for trade with the West Indies and Europe. The ships carried lumber, fish, and later granite and bricks; and returned with sugar, molasses and rum from the West Indies, salt from Portugal, and manufactured goods from England. Not only did the men build the ships, but they also served as officers and in the crews.

Fishing was also a major occupation for which a number of vessels were built. Cod was the primary fishery in the first half of the nineteenth century; it peaked around 1830 and then came to a halt with the repeal of the government bounty in 1866. Mackerel was increasing in importance throughout the nineteenth century, and replaced cod as the major fishery with the repeal of the government bounty and the advent of purse seining. In the late 1800's when the mackerel fishery began to decline, lobstering grew in importance.

Another important, but short-lived, fishery was that of menhaden or porgies. These fish, a species of herring, occupied Maine waters in large numbers until 1879. As early as 1845, porgies were caught and processed for oil in North Brooklin. The porgies were boiled in large kettles, the oil skimmed off, and the remains then used for fertilizer or sheep food. In 1874, 30,000 gallons of oil were produced in Brooklin. Other species of herring were also caught and packed. George Flye smoked and boxed herring, maintaining a considerable business on the island that now bears the family name. Clearly, the fishing industry has been quite varied in response to changes in demand for and supply of different fish.

Brooklin has been the home of fish factories as well as fishermen. The first fish factory in Brooklin was built on the north side of Eggemoggin Reach in 1870. In 1875, McFarland & Sons and the Augustine Packing Company opened, to be followed by the Brooklin Packing Company and then, in 1890, the S.G. Stevens Packing Company. In 1902, Farnsworth bought out Stevens and then sold to Ramsdell in 1923.

Ramsdell employed 48 packers, mostly women, and twenty to twenty-five men for other jobs. Cans for the factory were transported from Lubec by the Eastern Steamship Company, while coal and salt were brought from Rockland. Shortly after the Eastern Steamship Company discontinued its run to Brooklin, the factory was abandoned. In the 1930's Herrick and Allen were packing sardines, flaked fish, cat food, mackerel, clams, and vinegar-cured fish in the Cousins factory next to the Ramsdell site. They took their goods to Ellsworth and sent them by train to Chicago and California.

Lumbering was another major occupation. The trees were cut during the winter and then either used for lumber or burned for fuel. Local brick kilns, and later the lime kilns in Thomaston, demanded large quantities of wood to be used as fuel. By the late 1800's, however, all but the most inaccessible areas had been cut over, leaving only second growth timber for future harvesting.

Shipping activity in the Penobscot Bay area began to decline after the 1860's; however, quarrying for granite was beginning and would become the region's major industry in the late 1800's. The granite industry peaked around the turn of the century and then began to decline due to competition from inland sources made accessible by the newly built railroads and a diminishing market for granite building material and paving blocks.

Based upon population figures for the area, it can be said that the Penobscot Bay area, with its many protected harbors, was at its heyday between 1840 and 1860 when economic activity in the area was based upon the exploitation of natural resources accessible to sailing vessels. Products from the forests, the rich fishing grounds, and the granite quarries were traded around the world.

By the late 1800's, however, economic opportunities in the area were beginning to decline due to new developments in transportation, i.e., the railroads that were opening up the interior and the transition from wooden sailing vessels to iron-hulled steamships. The transition from sail to steam curtailed boat building in the area as neither the coal nor the iron necessary for building steamships was readily available. The dependable service provided by the steamships did, however, make the area more accessible to summer vacationers who began coming to the area in the late 1800's.

 

 

d. Twentieth Century Developments

In the early 1900's the Maine Central Railroad began cutting into the freight and passenger business of the Boston & Maine Steamship Line and others servicing the area. With the increasing reliance on the railroads, which began service to Bucksport and Ellsworth in 1883 and 1884 respectively, local areas began to change their orientation from Rockland/Boston to Ellsworth-Bucksport-Bangor. This reorientation became complete when the steamer service was discontinued in the late 1930's due to the widespread use of trucks and automobiles. The automobile also affected rail service, so that by the 1940's there was no longer any passenger service on the Maine Central. More recently, air service has affected the transportation network in the area.

As previously mentioned, the steamship made the area more accessible to summer vacationers. Although the first vacationers came as early as 1880, they did not appreciably affect the area until later. First boarding houses, then hotels, and later summer cottages were built to serve these vacationers. The depression in the 30's limited the number of people able to visit the area and it was not until after World War II that the tourist industry was revived.

5. Archaeological and Historical Resources

This section will first describe those sites recognized by the Maine Historic Preservation Commission (MHPC) and then discuss other known sites. Since the exact locations of some sites must be kept confidential, some of the descriptions are very general. Further information is available from the MHPC.

a. MHPC recognized sites

MHPC records list 59 pre-historic (those predating European settlement) sites in Brooklin. These sites are located within the shoreland zone of the mainland and islands. There are primarily shell middens. No historic archaeological sites are listed by the MHPC for Brooklin.

The MHPC stresses that an inventory of pre-historic sites has been conducted on only half of the shoreline. It recommends that this survey be completed. It also stresses that no professional survey for historic archaeological sites has been conducted to date in Brooklin. It suggests that future fieldwork focus on sites related to the earliest European settlement of the town, beginning with the French Acadians around the 1680s.

There are two historic buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the E.B. White House and the Brooklin IOOF Hall, both of which are on Route 175. National Register listing offers properties limited protection when federal monies are involved. Consideration must be given to alternatives before federal funds can be used in a project that might alter a property on the Register. There are also certain tax advantages to renovating historical properties. Listing does not restrict the decisions of private property owners to do what they wish with their property. Rather, if a property is altered by an owner in a way that destroys its historic character, that property is subject to removal from the Register.

The MHPC suggests a comprehensive survey be conducted of Brooklin’s historic above-ground resources to identify other properties that may be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Given the many older homes in town, such a survey may reveal many eligible homes. Further information on surveys is available from the MHPC.

b. Locally recognized sites

While there are many older homes of historic interest, no one has conducted a formal inventory of these homes.

6. Threats to Brooklin's Historical and Archaeological Resources

Since there is so little information available about Brooklin's historical resources, sites could be destroyed unintentionally. This could occur through new development such as a subdivision or renovation of an existing building without regard to its historic character.

7. Assessment of Current Protection Measures

Brooklin presently offers minimal protection to its historical resources. As mentioned above, only two are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are a number of steps that Brooklin could take to increase protection of its historical resources. The town subdivision ordinance could be amended to require that an in-depth archaeological survey be performed if it is suspected that the site may be of historical value. It may be possible to negotiate with the developer to change the layout of the site to protect the area of archaeological interest. For example, building footprints could be moved to another portion of the parcel.

Local groups such as the historical society may want to contact the MHPC for information on how to conduct a survey of historic sites and properties. This would be an important step in informing residents about the town's historic resources.

L. LAND USE

1. Purpose

This section discusses current and likely future land use patterns in Brooklin. An understanding of land use trends is very important in determining Brooklin's ability to absorb future growth. Specifically, this section:

a. summarizes the breakdown of developed and undeveloped land in terms of estimated acreage and location;

b. discusses major changes in Brooklin's land use patterns and how these might affect future land use; and

c. identifies land areas suitable and unsuitable for the growth likely over the next ten years.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin is a very rural town. About 6 percent of its total land area is developed. About half of its land area has a very low potential for development due to poor soils. While the town has five village-type areas, most development in recent years has occurred along the shore or in rural parts of town. The interior of the town remains largely undeveloped.

A relatively slow rate of growth is projected for the future. A very liberal estimate is that an additional 110 acres of residential land will be developed by 2010. There may also be minor increases in commercial development. More land may also be held in conservation easements. There is clearly ample land to accommodate future development, the challenge facing the town is thus deciding how to manage this growth.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

About 95 percent of respondents felt that it was "very important" to preserve the rural way of life in Brooklin. Sixty-four percent of respondents wanted to allow residential uses "anywhere in town" while only 12 percent chose this category as the preferred location for commercial uses. A bare majority of 51 percent wanted commercial uses concentrated "close to village centers." About 80 percent favored additional measures to assure that development in the shoreland zone "respects this area’s natural features."

Comments made during the survey and the first community workshop showed that most residents value the town’s scenic beauty and quiet. Others expressed concern about too much development and sprawl. There were also, however, many comments expressing opposition to town-wide zoning.

 

  1. Acreage of Developed Land

The acreage of developed residential land is shown on Table L.1. This table also shows land ownership by tax billing address. Those with out of town addresses are assumed to be non-residents and those with local addresses are assumed to be residents. Since there are cases where non-residents may use a local address for income tax purposes or for other reasons, this breakdown should be considered general.

This table shows that there about 591 developed acres in town or 6 percent of the total land area. This estimate is based on assessing records for lots with structures multiplied by the minimum lot size of 1 acre. Developed lots with two or more acres were considered as "surplus in developed parcels." This means that further development of these parcels is theoretically possible.

TABLE L.1

Estimate of Developed Land Acreage

Ownership

Resident

Out of Town

Total

 

Estimated Acres

Percent

Est. Acres

Percent

Estimated Acres

Percent

Undeveloped

2,003

19%

4,022

37%

6,025

56%

Developed

316

3%

275

3%

591

6%

Surplus in developed parcels

2,101

20%

2,018

19%

4,119

38%

Total Available

4,104

38%

6,040

56%

10,144

94%

Total

4,419

41%

6,315

59%

10,735

100%

Source: Analysis of assessing records by the HCPC

According to this analysis, about 94 percent of the land in Brooklin is vacant. This does not reflect land that may be restricted from development due to conservation easements. No data are available on this acreage. There are also 211 tax-exempt acres. This amount includes public land and land held by non-profits. As will be discussed below, much of the vacant land is not developable due to poor soils.

5. Land Use Patterns

This section discusses land use patterns in the various parts of town. Specific problems or needs facing each part of town are identified. It is important that these be reflected in the comprehensive plan.

a. An Overview

With about 10,735 acres of land area and 841 year-round residents, Brooklin is a very lightly populated town. As a peninsula, most development has occurred around the perimeter of town while the interior portions are largely undeveloped. The shorefront areas have attracted considerable development and there are five established village areas, Brooklin, West Brooklin, North Brooklin and Naskeag and Flye Points. In recent years, more development has occurred along Route 175.

b. The Shorefront

The shorefront has long been popular as a place for second and year-round homes. Shore property will likely remain in high demand. This area is already regulated through the town’s shoreland zoning ordinance, which meets state minimum standards. While this ordinance offers protection in terms of waterfront setbacks, timber harvesting and other environmental standards, residents are still concerned over the impacts of shorefront development. The character of the shore is changing due to many large homes being built with relatively little space between them. There are no side or rear lot setback standards. There are also no road frontage requirements.

One major issue with current shoreland zoning is enforcement of standards, particularly timber harvesting. Many homes have been built along the shore that are readily visible from the water. The timber harvesting standards in shoreland areas zoned for residential uses generally apply within 75 feet of the shore. The town thus have little ability to regulate timber harvesting beyond that 75-foot buffer. The visual impact of new shorefront development could be mitigated by designating a wider area that would be subject to timber harvesting standards.

One shorefront issue is potential conflicts between water-dependent uses such as fishing operations, piers and boat yards and other uses. Fishing and boat building are important to the local economy. Some towns have enacted shoreland zones that protect such areas to conversion to non-water dependent uses. This helps assure that access to the water for such uses is retained rather than having areas to converted to other uses such as residential condominiums or restaurants.

Normally, towns only zone a small area under such classifications and only if the current use were economically viable. The process usually also involves consultation with the land owners. The town is presently developing a town pier.

Another issue is the large size and number of homes being built along the shore. This could be addressed by requiring greater setbacks, impervious surface coverage requirements, screening and similar standards. This would involve implementing standards that exceed the state minimum for shoreland areas.

There has also been considerable development beyond the 250 foot buffer subject to shoreland zoning, but still within easy access of the shore. This can be seen in the case of Naskeag and Flye Points. These areas are likely to remain popular for home building, especially as shore front property becomes scarcer. The town would have greater control over such development if the shoreland zone were extended to 350 feet.

c. The Villages

The villages once were the major areas of year-round homes in Brooklin. In recent years, more development has taken place along both Route 175 and secondary roads. The villages, however, still play an important role in the community and have many buildings of high historical value. Brooklin village also features the main store in town, the library, school and a church.

The Brooklin Center neighborhood offers services such as stores and a library in easy walking distance. Also nearby, is the Brooklin School and the town green. There is also sufficient vacant land with soils suited for development to accommodate future growth compatible with a traditional New England village.

While North Brooklin, West Brooklin, Naskeag and Flye Points are less developed, they still have some village character. Most recent development, however, that has not occurred along or adjacent to the shore has been along rural roads. The current pattern of development is likely to continue unless the town takes measures to discourage development in the rural areas and encourage development in the villages.

d. Route 175

Route 175 is the only state highway through town. As mentioned in the Transportation chapter, speeding and maintenance are major concerns of residents. Recent development along this highway has increased the number of curb cuts. This increases the risks of accidents due to turning movements. The town may want to think of ways to reduce the rate at which new curb cuts are placed directly on the road. This could include shared driveways and requiring interior roads for subdivisions.

e. Remote Areas

The interior of Brooklin is largely undeveloped. While much of the land has soils unsuited for residential development, there are also some areas with good soils. There is, however, some residential development along the southern end of the Old County Road and on the Folley Road.

It can be particularly costly for towns to serve new homes in areas such as these if school bus routes and road plowing services must be expanded. Emergency vehicle access is another concern. The road system is currently very limited and those roads that do exist are generally narrow and unpaved. Due to their remoteness, these areas are the least suited to accommodating major new development such as large-scale residential subdivisions.

6. Recent Land Use Changes

Brooklin has experienced a 30 percent increase in new home construction between 1980 and 2000 (see the Housing chapter). Changes between 1990 and 2000 are shown on Map 3. The rate for the 1990-2000 period was much slower (5.3 percent) than the 1980-1990 rate of 24 percent. As seen much of the development (year-round and seasonal) has occurred along the shorefront. There has also, however, been some development along Route 175. The interior of town has remained largely undeveloped.

7. Areas Suitable for Growth

While Table L.1 indicates that Brooklin has ample vacant land, not all of this land is readily developable. The Natural Resources Conservation Service has rated the various soils in town in terms of their potential for low-density urban development (see Table L.2 and the Soils Potential for Low Density Development map at the town office). According to this analysis, there are about 5,465 acres (49 percent of the total land area) with a very low potential for development and 1,793 acres with a low potential. There are also about 756 acres with a medium potential and 2,846 acres with a high potential.

These soil ratings are based on factors such as soil suitability for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings with basements and local roads and streets. The criteria reflect state-wide standards. There are few areas in the state that don't have at least some soil limitations such as wetness or bedrock near the surface.

The map shows that very low potential soils are widely scattered throughout town. They are, however, more predominant in the northern and western parts of town. Soils are generally better on Naskeag and Flye Points.

Soils alone, however, should not be considered in determining areas most suited for growth. It is also important to consider access to roads and other services, existing land uses and citizen wishes. Also, even areas less suited for growth can usually accommodate some type of lower density development.

Table L.2

Soil Potential Ratings for Low-Density Development, Brooklin

Category

Estimated Acreage

Percent

Very Low Potential

5,465

49%

Low Potential

1,793

16%

Medium Potential

756

7%

High Potential

2,846

26%

Very High Potential

269

2%

Total Land Area1

11,129

100%

1Note: The total acreage shown here does not equal the total shown elsewhere in this report due to differences in mapping procedures.

Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Maine Office of GIS

 

It must be stressed that the soils information shown on the Soils Potential map is very general. It should not be used as the sole criterion in determining if a parcel is suitable for development since generalized soil surveys are considered accurate for pieces of land greater than five acres. A more detailed soils survey is generally needed to assess site-specific problems on smaller parcels.

8. Current Land Use Regulation Measures

There is no town-wide zoning in Brooklin and no building permit ordinance. Residences can be built outside of the shoreland zone without any town review or knowledge that they being built. There is a land use ordinance that requires a minimum lot size of one acre for a single family dwelling. This ordinance consists of a few paragraphs and its purpose is primarily to assure that homes are not built on lots that are overly small.

The shoreland zoning standards are consistent with the state minimum guidelines but do not exceed these guidelines in any significant way and have had limited effectiveness in managing development along the shore. While the town drafted a subdivision ordinance in the 1990s, it was never adopted. The town thus relies on the general state guidelines in reviewing subdivisions.

The town also has a site plan review ordinance that applies to commercial, retail, industrial, institutional and multi-family uses. The ordinance is eight pages long and has about two pages of very general performance standards.

The most immediately apparent deficiencies in town land use regulation are the lack of a subdivision ordinance and building permit ordinance and the inadequate scope of the shoreland zoning ordinance. The site plan review ordinance also needs more specific development review standards.

9. Projected Land Acreage Needed for Development

A general estimate of the land needed for development between 2001 and 2011 can be made using the dwelling unit projections from the Housing chapter and other expected growth trends. The dwelling unit projections assume 54 additional new year-round homes by 2011. To allow for a faster than expected rate of growth and for any second homes, the plan assumes that 110 units in ten years will be built. Assuming an average of one acre of land per unit, this would mean 110 additional acres of residential land by the year 2011 (see Table L.4).

This is a very liberal projection. It is more likely that the actual rate of development will be far below this rate. For planning purposes, however, it is better to plan for high growth than to be left unprepared for a faster than expected growth rate.

Commercial development is likely to be sporadic. Given past trends, there may be another ten to 20 acres of commercial development by 2011. Given the current glut of retail space in Blue Hill (such as vacant storefronts and restaurants), not major retail expansion is expected in the greater Blue Hill area. Must development in Brooklin is expected to be very small scale (such as antique shops and other owner-operated businesses catering to tourists) or expansions of existing uses such as Inns and boat yards.

There may also be an increase in conservation land if more properties are placed under conservation easements. This is especially likely if the town actively promotes such measures. There is no way to estimate how many acres would be protected by such easements.

These projections show that there would be about 4,360 acres of vacant, developable land by the year 2011. There is thus ample land to accommodate any anticipated development. The challenge is for the town to grow in a way that minimizes sprawl while also limiting any restrictions on how owners might choose to use their land.

Table L.3

Projected Land Use, Brooklin, 2011

Estimated New

Acreage

2001-2011

Projected Acreage

2011

Description

2001 Acreage

Residential

591

110

701

Tax-exempt

211

0

211

Industrial

?

0

?

Total Developed

802

110

912

Very Low

Potential Soils:

5,465

---

5,465

Vacant-Other Soils:

4,468

---

4,358

Total Land Area

10,735

---

10,735

Source: Projections by the Hancock County Planning Commission

M. FISCAL CAPACITY

1. Purpose

High property tax rates are one of the major problems facing communities with large amounts of shorefront properties such as Brooklin. They are a particular problem for the elderly and others on fixed incomes. Therefore, a comprehensive plan should examine fiscal trends in a town.

Specifically, this section will:

a. summarize Brooklin's current fiscal conditions;

b. discuss recent revenue and expenditure patterns;

c. predict likely future revenue and expenditure trends; and

d. assess Brooklin's capacity to finance capital expenditures for the next ten years.

2. Key Findings and Issues

Brooklin has a higher tax assessment per capita than most of its immediate neighbors. Property tax assessments increased at an after-inflation rate of 11 percent between 1995 and 1999. This was considerably faster than the Hancock County average increase of 4 percent. The tax base is primarily residential, but about 3 percent consists of industrial valuation.

While expenditures continue to increase, a review of individual budget items between 1991 and 1999 reveals that several did not increase much over the rate of inflation. For example, town roads and bridges and winter road maintenance all had minor increases. Further increases are expected in solid waste. The greatest numerical increase was in education.

3. Public Opinion Survey and Community Workshop Results

About 26 percent of respondents felt that property taxes were a problem, 57 percent felt that they were not a problem. There were also some comments about "uneven" assessment practices.

4. Valuation and Tax Assessment

Brooklin's ability to raise tax revenue is dependent largely on its tax base or valuation. As seen in Table M.1, Brooklin's state equalized valuation increased from $116.9 million in 1991 to $134.2 million in 1999. This is an increase of about 15 percent in eight years. When these figures are adjusted for inflation, the total change is actually a decrease of 5 percent.

There has also been an increase in the property tax burden. When adjusted for inflation, the total money raised through property taxes increased from $1,143,968 in 1991 to $1,286,973 in 1999 (as reported by the Maine Bureau of Taxation). This was a real (adjusted for inflation) increase of 13 percent. Property tax assessments thus increased at a faster rate than the valuation over the eight-year period. If property taxes continue to increase faster than the valuation, this would likely mean a greater burden on all taxpayers in town.

 

Table M.1

State Equalized Valuation and Property Tax Assessment Trends

Brooklin, 1991-1999

Year

Valuation

Property Tax Assessment

Current Dollars1

1999

Dollars2

Current Dollars1

1999

Dollars2

1991

$116,950,000

$141,509,500

$945,428

$1,143,968

1992

$126,200,000

$148,916,000

$954,854

$1,126,728

1993

$130,850,000

$150,477,500

$1,038,864

$1,194,694

1994

$122,150,000

$139,251,000

$999,329

$1,139,235

1995

$133,100,000

$147,741,000

$1,042,775

$1,157,480

1996

$129,350,000

$139,698,000

$1,047,712

$1,131,529

1997

$131,600,000

$138,180,000

$1,065,214

$1,118,475

1998

$133,247,200

$137,244,616

$1,209,885

$1,246,182

1999

134,199,500

$134,199,500

$1,286,973

$1,286,973

1991-1999

Change

15%

-5%

36%

13%

1 Unadjusted for inflation.

2 Adjusted for inflation.

SOURCE: Maine Bureau of Taxation, Municipal Valuation Return Summary.

Inflation adjustments made using U.S. Dept. of Labor Consumer Price Index.

 

It is useful to compare valuation trends in Brooklin to those of other Hancock County towns. As seen in Table M.2, Brooklin's 1999 state equalized valuation per capita was higher than all towns listed except Brooksville. On a per capita basis, the 1999 property tax assessment in Brooklin was $1,381 (see Table M.2). This is about 11 percent higher than the Hancock County average. These per capita figures are for year-round residents only, they do not reflect the share of the property tax burden assumed by non-resident landowners. They do, however, indicate that Brooklin's property tax burden is more substantial than many communities in Hancock County.

Table M.2

Valuation and Tax Spending (Assessment)

Brooklin, Brooksville, Blue Hill, Sedgwick Deer Isle and Hancock County

1998 Population Estimate

1999 State Equalized Valuation

1999 State Valuation Per Capita

1999 Tax Assessment

1999 Tax Assessment

Per Capita

Brooklin

932

$140,200,000

$150,429

$1,286,973

$1,381

Brooksville

898

$155,200,000

$172,829

$1,208,002

$1,345

Blue Hill

2,316

$303,650,000

$131,110

$3,377,624

$1,458

Sedgwick

1,088

$80,200,000

$73,713

$1,160,045

$1,066

Deer Isle

1,826

$213,900,000

$117,141

$2,175,155

$1,191

Hancock County

49,840

$5,055,400,000

$101,433

$62,015,180

$1,244

SOURCE: Maine Bureau of Taxation, Municipal Valuation Return Statistical Summary

 

Table M.3

Tax Spending (Commitment)

Brooklin, Brooksville, Blue Hill, Sedgwick, Deer Isle and Hancock County: 1995-1999

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Percent Increase 1995-1999

Percent

Increase

Adjusted

for Inflation

Brooklin

$1,042,775

$1,047,694

$1,065,214

$1,209,885

$1,286,973

23%

11%

Brooksville

$1,049,405

$1,077,712

$1,070,814

$1,135,785

$1,208,002

15%

4%

Blue Hill

$2,694,437

$2,947,051

$3,137,196

$3,197,130

$3,377,624

25%

13%

Sedgwick

$929,113

$1,075,840

$1,094,745

$1,091,617

$1,160,045

25%

12%

Deer Isle

$1,861,767

$1,958,494

$1,992,063

$1,986,541

$2,175,155

17%

5%

Hancock County

$53,552,500

$56,713,933

$58,330,228

$59,772,696

$62,015,180

16%

4%

SOURCE: Maine Bureau of Taxation, Municipal Valuation Return Statistical Summary

 

Property tax burdens can also be measured by comparing the various types of property in a town. As seen in Table M.4, Brooklin has just over $1 million in taxable personal property (items such as machinery or major pieces of office equipment) or just under one percent of the total valuation. This compares to an average of six percent for Hancock County. The Hancock County average, however, is skewed by those few towns with large industries. Bucksport, for example, has about 80 percent of all reported personal property in the county.

State Bureau of Taxation data indicate that Brooklin has about $4.2 million in industrial valuation. This is a reflection of the importance of the boat yards to the town’s economy. Brooklin has far more industrial valuation than any of its immediate neighbors.

Brooklin, according to state figures, has about $3.54 million worth of tax-exempt property. This includes about $42,800 in state property and $2.6 million in property owned by "public municipal corporations," which would include town-owned property. There is also about $304,000 worth of veteran exemptions in town. Other tax-exempt property includes churches (about $317,800), fraternal organizations ($112,100), charitable properties ($29,704) and literary and scientific organizations ($109,600). Overall, this property amounts to about 3 percent of the total state valuation. This is less than the county average and several of the adjoining towns.

Table M.4

Total Valuation by Type, 1999

Town

Personal Property

Percent

Industrial Valuation

Percent

Exempt Property

Percent

Brooklin

$1,070,000

0.8%

$4,202,400

3.1%

$3,541,304

3%

Brooksville

$39,350

0.0%

$0

0.0%

$5,721,300

4%

Blue Hill

$220,600

0.1%

$0

0.0%

$27,656,580

10%

Sedgwick

$134,550

0.1%

$0

0.0%

$0

0%

Deer Isle

$206,200

0.3%

$206,200

0.3%

$6,432,500

9%

Hancock County

$293,840,097

6.0%

$321,488,251

6.6%

$621,256,185

13%

SOURCE: Maine Bureau of Taxation, Municipal Valuation Return Statistical Summary

 

5. Current and Future Revenue Trends

Education remains the single largest expenditure in Brooklin. Table M.5 compares state school subsidies and local appropriations for education. Overall school spending in Brooklin increased at an after-inflation rate of 22 percent between 1991 and 1999. In recent years Brooklin has received state assistance in retiring its school debt, but has not received any basic school funding. Under Maine’s school funding law, towns with high valuation receive minimal state general funding for education. This means that the basic source of revenue for education and most other town services comes from property taxes.

 

Table M.5

Brooklin State School Subsidies and Local

Expenditures

Year

State

Foundation

State

Debt Service

Total State Amount 1

Municipal

Amount

Total

1991

$16,887

$0

$16,887

$720,006

$753,780

1992

$12,000

$0

$12,000

$660,396

$684,396

1993

$12,000

$0

$12,000

$699,628

$723,628

1994

$15,880

$0

$15,880

$753,433

$785,193

1995

$0

$84,462

$84,462

$886,328

$1,055,252

1996

$0

$249,766

$249,766

$950,507

$1,450,039

1997

$0

$237,539

$237,539

$995,038

$1,470,116

1998

$0

$228,129

$228,129

$1,090,081

$1,546,339

1999

$0

$218,964

$218,964

$1,110,841

$1,548,769

% increase

1197%

54%

105%

% increase adjusted for inflation

972%

28%

70%

1 These figures are from the school's fiscal year and may differ from town

figures, which are based on the calendar year.

SOURCE: Town Reports as compiled by the HCPC.

 

6. Current and Future Expenditure Trends

Table M.6 compares selected expenditures between 1991 and 1999 adjusted for inflation. The most rapid spending increases were in administration and the fire department. All other categories except social security payments and town roads and bridges increased at a rate above that of inflation.

Most of the capital expenditures Brooklin faces in the next few years are related to the fire department. These include a new fire station and several pieces of equipment. The equipment costs will be somewhat offset by funding from capital equipment reserve accounts. If the town undertakes dock or other public access to salt water improvements, these may also require capital expenditures. These improvements may involve matching state grant funds.

The town may also have to consider extra funding for road rebuilding and repair. Recent changes in the state's municipal road reimbursement formula further restrict how state money can be spent. Funds may be used only for capital projects such as building and rebuilding of roads and hot-topping projects with a 2-inch minimum layer of pavement.

 

Table M.6

Comparison of Selected Expenditures

1991 and 1999

Item

1991

Amount

1991

Amount in 1999 Dollars

1999

Amount

Constant Dollar Percent Change

Administration

$28,000

$33,880

$61,285

45%

Town Roads/Bridges

$25,400

$30,734

$30,765

0%

Winter Roads

$54,000

$65,340

$67,305

3%

Solid Waste

$47,802

$57,840

$59,500

3%

Fire Department

$12,183

$14,741

$27,000

45%

Social Security

$2,800

$3,388

$2,000

-69%

Insurance

$7,000

$8,470

$10,500

19%

Education

$680,003

$822,804

$1,329,805

38%

Friend Memorial Library

$2,500

$3,025

$5,000

40%

Street Lights

$1,608

$1,946

$3,500

44%

SOURCE: Town Reports as compiled by the HCPC

 

7. Municipal Debt and Capital Financing

Brooklin presently has a relatively low volume of debt when compared to the maximum debt allowed by state law. Towns may borrow up to 15 percent of their total state valuation, which in Brooklin's case would be about $20 million in 2000. About half of the debt must be reserved for educational purposes. Currently, the only debt is for the school. Since the school is presently well under capacity, there is little likelihood of any additional debt being incurred for at least ten years.

N. SUMMARY

This chapter summarizes the major issues raised in each chapter of the Inventory and Analysis section of the plan. This summary sets the foundation for the Goals and Objectives section. The first section discusses the most pressing concerns facing Brooklin and then specific issues for each segment of the Inventory and Analysis are discussed. These issues are taken verbatim from the Key Findings and Issues section of each chapter.

1. Priority Issues

While the Inventory and Analysis and the public outreach activities show that Brooklin offers a high quality of life and has relatively few problems, there are some issues of concern. One is the state of the town’s harbors and inadequate public access to the shore. Some major improvements are needed if these important economic and recreational resources are to remain viable.

Another is the aging of the population. The town’s identity as a community of all age groups is threatened by the relatively few younger families staying or moving into town. At least one factor for this trend is the high cost of housing.

2. Population

Brooklin's year-round population increased by about 3.5 percent in the 1970’s and at a 27 percent rate during the 1980s. There was a 7.1 percent growth rate in the 1990s. The U.S. Census lists the 2000 year-round population at 841 and the town is projected to have a population of 946 by the year 2010. After increasing during the 1980s, the number of pre-school-aged children is now decreasing. This may result in declining school enrollments.

Household incomes in Brooklin are somewhat lower than those of Hancock County as a whole. Educational attainment levels, however, are higher than the county average. The town does experience an influx of summer population, but the numbers are hard to quantify. A rough estimate is that the town’s population at least doubles in the summer months.

3. Economy

While Brooklin is a rural town with limited infrastructure, it does offer some local jobs through the boat building industry. Unemployment rates in Brooklin are generally lower than those of Hancock County as a whole. There is also less seasonal fluctuation than there is in Hancock County.

 

4. Housing

Brooklin has seen a rapid increase in the number of year-round and seasonal homes since 1970. The number of dwellings between 1970 and 2000 increased by just over 30 percent. As of 2000 there were an estimated 697 dwelling units (year-round and seasonal) in town, compared to 454 in 1970.

Decent, affordable housing is a problem in Brooklin. While recent sales prices are above the county average, there is a greater percentage of homes lacking amenities such as complete plumbing than there is in Hancock County as a whole. Brooklin is part of the Stonington area housing market. Purchase prices in 1998 for the average first-time home were second only to the greater Portland area, where household incomes were 50 percent higher. These costs have made it difficult for young families to buy a home in Brooklin. This is at least one factor in the aging of the population, which is discussed in the Population section and declining school enrollment, which is addressed in the Community Facilities and Services section.

5. Transportation

Brooklin has about 30 miles of public ways, of which about 11 miles are state highways and the rest are town ways. One major issue facing the town is the poor condition of Route 175, the only state road in town. Another issue is several road segments with high accident rates. Two particularly hazardous areas are Hales Hill Road north of Hales Wood Road and the Smith-Naskeag road intersection.

6. Public Facilities and Services

One major public facility issue facing Brooklin is the need for a new fire station. Another is declining enrollment in the Brooklin School, there were 67 students enrolled in the fall of 2000 and the facility has a rated capacity of 120 students. The town also faces increased solid waste and recycling costs.

7. Recreation

Brooklin has limited recreation facilities and programs. It is unlikely that there could be a major upgrade of facilities due to the town’s low year-round population and the many demands already placed on its tax base. One particular need, however, that the town might want to address is more parking spaces at the various town landings.

8. Marine Resources

While marine resources still contribute in important ways to Brooklin’s economy, the fishing community faces serious challenges. Harbor facilities lack adequate parking and have not been well maintained. Public access to the water is inadequate to handle current demand. The town lacks a harbor master and a harbor policy.

9. Water Resources

Brooklin residents depend primarily upon bedrock wells for their drinking water. There are no serious threats to the town’s ground water resources. Since there are no lakes or great ponds in town, the major surface water resources are salt water. There are only two licensed overboard discharges in town and no known threats to surface water resources.

10. Natural Resources

As a coastal community, Brooklin has a diversity of animal and plant life. Its coastline is an important habitat for waterfowl. The town is also the habitat of the threatened Allegheny Vine plant. There are five or fewer known occurrences of this plant in the state. Upland areas are habitats for deer, moose and black bears.

11. Agricultural and Forest Issues

About 82 percent of Brooklin’s approximately 12,000 acres of land area is forested. The forests are a mixture of hard and softwoods. While the state requirements for placing land under the preferential tree growth tax classification have become more restrictive, the acreage held under this classification in Brooklin has increased slightly in recent years. Forestry is thus an important land use in Brooklin.

The most recent estimate is that there are 17 farms in Brooklin. Most of these are devoted to raising blueberries. Only about 16 percent of Brooklin’s soils are ideally suited for agriculture and about three-quarters of these would require either drainage or irrigation. The focus in Brooklin should thus be on maintaining the current level of farming rather than looking toward a significant expansion.

12. Historical Resources

Brooklin has a large number (59) of known pre-historic (i.e., those predating European settlement) sites along its coast. However, only half of the coastline has been surveyed for sites so the actual number of sites may be considerably larger. While the town has many buildings of historic interest, only the E.B. White house and the IOOF hall are on the National Register of Historic Places. There are many other sites that may be eligible for listing.

13. Existing Land Use

Brooklin is a very rural town. About 6 percent of its total land area is developed. About half of its land area has a very low potential for development due to poor soils. While the town has five village-type areas, most development in recent years has occurred along the shore or in rural parts of town. The interior of the town remains largely undeveloped.

A relatively slow rate of growth is projected for the future. A very liberal estimate is that an additional 110 acres of residential land will be developed by 2010. There may also be minor increases in commercial development. More land may also be held in conservation easements. There is clearly ample land to accommodate future development, the challenge facing the town is thus deciding how to manage this growth.

14. Fiscal Capacity

Brooklin has a higher tax assessment per capita than most of its immediate neighbors. Property tax assessments increased at an after-inflation rate of 11 percent between 1995 and 1999. This was considerably faster than the Hancock County average increase of 4 percent. The tax base is primarily residential, but about 3 percent consists of industrial valuation.

While expenditures continue to increase, a review of individual budget items between 1991 and 1999 reveals that several did not increase much over the rate of inflation. For example, solid waste, town roads and bridges and winter road maintenance all had minor increases (although solid waste costs have increased significantly since 1999). The greatest numerical increase was in education.

15. Key Regional Concerns

Brooklin faces several issues that would be best addressed on a regional level. First, it needs to work with surrounding towns to pressure the Maine Department of Transportation to upgrade the state highways serving the Blue Hill Peninsula. Second, efforts to retain and create jobs should be done in cooperation with regional groups such as the Coastal Acadia Development Corporation. Third, any efforts to expand the supply of affordable housing would be addressed most effectively with other towns on the Blue Hill Peninsula.

 

 

II.A. GOALS and OBJECTIVES

1. Purpose

This section presents goals and objectives for the town of Brooklin. Goals are general statements for the town's future and are followed by more specific objectives. As will be seen, these goals and objectives are highly interrelated. While this plan contains some highly specific recommendations, residents are reminded that planning is an on-going process. To assure flexibility in the event of unforeseen circumstances, periodic updating of these goals is necessary.

2. Overall Goal

Brooklin desires to protect its small town atmosphere while allowing for continued growth. It wishes to avoid implementing town-wide zoning that will encroach upon the freedom of its residents.

3. Goals and Objectives

A. POPULATION GOAL

Brooklin will assure that future population growth continues in an orderly manner that preserves the town’s rural character. It aims to have a diversity of ages in its population.

Implementation Strategy: The planning board and select board review growth trends every three years to ascertain if there are population growth-related problems. The plan will need to be updated within ten years of its adoption. If growth occurs significantly faster than projected in the plan, the update will need to occur sooner. In order to assure a greater diversity of population ages, the town encourages development of a first-time home purchase neighborhood.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Planning board and select board working with the Hancock County Planning Commission and the State Planning Office. The update shall begin by 2010. The housing issues are dealt with the housing goals presented later in this section.

 

B. ECONOMY GOAL

Brooklin desires a local economy that builds on existing natural and human resources and offers residents a diversity of job opportunities. Specific economic development policies include:

1. assuring that any changes to land use regulations do not unduly restrict home-based businesses. Standards for such uses, however, shall include requiring adequate off-street parking and assuring that any large equipment or material storage areas are screened from surrounding properties;

 

Implementation Strategy: This will be addressed through a major revision to the site plan review ordinance.

Responsibility/Time Frame: The planning board or a designated subcommittee. After the plan is adopted, the town will request implementation grant funds from the State Planning Office to fund this endeavor/ funding shall be sought in 2002-2003 with the ordinances being ready for adoption in 2004.

 

    1. Supporting the boat building industry and related operations in Brooklin by pursuing any economic development grants that may be necessary to keep these operations viable or assist in their expansion;

Implementation Strategy: The selectmen inform the Coastal Acadia Development Corporation of its interest in pursuing such grants and work with that organization

Responsibility/Time Frame: Selectman/by 2003

  1. Assuring that the site plan review ordinance performance standards are adequate to protect adjoining properties from the adverse impacts of commercial and industrial operations. These standards will cover nuisances such as noise, glare, dust, vibrations, fumes and odor. They, however, will not apply to operations that are essential to commercial fishing;
  2. Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through a major revision to the site plan review ordinance.

    Responsibility/Time Frame: The planning board or a designated subcommittee. After the plan is adopted, the town will request implementation grant funds, if the plan is deemed consistent, from the State Planning Office to fund this endeavor/ funding shall be sought in 2002-2003 with the ordinances being ready for adoption in 2004.

  3. protecting natural resource-based jobs in forestry, agriculture and marine resources (see discussion under these respective sections); and
  4. undertaking measures to protect and enhance the town’s harbors. (see discussion under Marine Resources)

C. HOUSING GOAL

Brooklin aims to have reasonable opportunities for a safe, decent, and affordable housing stock for all residents and assure that its residents can afford to live in the town where they grew up. Specific housing policies include:

1. seeking grant or low interest loan monies through programs such as Community Development Block Grants or Rural Economic and Community Development to improve existing substandard housing occupied by low-income families;

Implementation Strategy: The select board contacts agencies with grant writing expertise such as the Hancock County Planning Commission to ascertain the town’s chances of receiving such funds. If it appears the town will be able to submit a competitive application, it shall form a committee to work with the various funding agencies in seeking a grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board or its designated subcommittee

2. enacting a mobile home park ordinance that will set standards for landscaping, buffering, and other measures to assure an attractive living environment and protect the values of adjoining properties while being consistent with state law; and

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through the same State Planning Office implementation grant described under B.4 above.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Same as B.4 above

3. creating a housing subdivision that will provide a home purchase opportunities in different price ranges so that there will be greater options for younger families to live in town.

Implementation Strategy: The select board creates an affordable housing committee to develop a process and a package of incentives and to oversee the private development of an affordable housing subdivision and other measures to allow younger families to live in town.. This shall be as close as possible to the village center and included in any future growth areas designated in the comprehensive plan. The goal is to complete a 5 to 10-unit development within five years of the plan approval. Houses will be targeted at families with household incomes in the $25,0000- $50,000 range. The oversight process will include town assistance in obtaining state grants, subsidies and the oversight of deed restrictions that ensure that subsequent sales of the houses are at levels affordable to subsequent buyers in the same income range. Incentives offered by the town could include measures such as serving as sponsors for state or federal grant applications, property tax reductions for owners for a period of time; accepting the street as a town way if it is built to town standards; and possible donation of tax-acquired land.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Housing committee created by select board/2003-2005

 

 

4. cooperating in regional endeavors to create more home purchase opportunities for working families.

Implementation Strategy: The Brooklin housing committee meets with the Blue Hill Peninsula Futures group or that group’s designated housing subcommittee to explore other options to increase the supply of affordable home purchase opportunities throughout the Peninsula. When appropriate, the Brooklin housing committee recommends town sponsorship or co-sponsorship of multi-town grants that address the region’s housing needs.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Housing committee/2003-2005

D. TRANSPORTATION GOAL

Brooklin desires a transportation system that promotes the mobility of local residents and visitors and avoids any further degradation of speed limits along Route 175 due to the unsafe location of driveways or new development. Specific transportation policies include:

1. incorporating access management standards into the town’s site plan review and subdivision ordinances. These standards will limit the number of curb cuts to one per lot for any lot that has less than 500 feet of lot frontage and encourage, where possible, shared access points onto the highway;

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through the drafting of amendments to the site plan review ordinance and the complete drafting of a subdivision ordinance.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Same as B.4 (via implementation grant)

2. working with the State Police and Hancock County Sheriff to increase enforcement of traffic laws, particularly those related to speeding;

Implementation Strategy: The select board shall contact the Sheriff’s department to request a meeting with a community policing representative during which options for more enforcement could be discussed.

Responsibility/Time Frame: select board/2002-2003

3. Taking measures to reduce conflicts between pedestrians, bicycles and motorized vehicles. Specific measures include:

    1. Working with the Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT) to have paved bicycle shoulders installed along Route 175. These shoulders could also be used by pedestrians;

Implementation Strategy: Town officials contact the Regional Transportation Advisory Committee (RTAC) via a letter to request that shoulders on this road be recommended in the Six-Year Plan

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/2002

  1. Maintain pedestrian crossing points near the library and other areas that attract large numbers of pedestrians; and

Implementation Strategy: This is simply a continuation of current policy

Responsibility/Time Frame: none needed

c. Assure that the planning board has the option to require the provision of sidewalks and bicycle facilities in subdivisions where there is likely to be considerable use of such facilities.

 

Implementation Strategy: This will be addressed through the subdivision ordinance

Responsibility/Time Frame: same as B.4

4. Reduce conflicts between moving and parked vehicles through the following measures:

      1. explore options for improving off-street parking at the center of town such as building a new parking lot;

Implementation Strategy: Town officials shall determine if there any vacant, publicly owned parcels that could be developed and, if there are, incorporate the planned improvements to the parcel as a parking lot into the capital improvements program.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/2004-2005

  1. develop public parking areas at Naskeag Point, Center Harbor and other public access points to salt water;
  2. Implementation Strategy: As part of the Harbor Management Plan (see Marine Resources) there shall be a study of parking options and recommended funding sources.

    Responsibility/Time Frame: This is addressed under Marine Resources

  3. assure that site plan review ordinance standards for off-street parking are adequate.

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through the redrafting of the site plan review ordinance as described above.

Responsibility/Time Frame: same as B.4 (drafting of land use ordinances)

 

5. Undertaking measures to improve town-owned road segments and Route 175. Specific measures include:

a. developing an overall municipal road improvement plan that will evaluate current road conditions and establish a six-year schedule of reconstruction and other activities. Priority for improvements shall generally be given to roads in growth areas;

Implementation Strategy: Town officials shall contact the MDOT’s Local Roads Center for the technical assistance necessary to develop the plan. Additional assistance may be available from the MDOT’s regional office. The schedule of improvements shall be reflected in the annual road budget. The last year of the six-year schedule shall be added annually (e.g. , the first year the schedule will be for 2002-2006, the second year for 2003-2009, the third year for 2004-2010, etc.)

Responsibility/Time Frame: The road commissioner and select board working with the MDOT local roads center.

 

      1. working with the MDOT to assure that improvements to Route 175 are included the MDOT’s six-year plan.

Implementation Strategy:. same as D.3.A

Responsibility/Time Frame: same as D.3.A

 

 

6. Enacting a subdivision ordinance and revising the current site plan review ordinance to address off-site traffic impacts. Specific measures include:

      1. encouraging new lots to front on new, rather than existing roads so that the number of curb cuts onto current roads is minimized and an attractive appearance is maintained;
      2. requiring that developers pay their proportion of costs of making off-site road improvements that are necessary as a result of the traffic their development is likely to generate. To determine specific impacts, the planning board may require that a traffic impact statement be prepared and that this statement be subject to review by another professional at the applicant's expense;
      3. assuring that dead-end road-length and turn-around area standards are consistent with the safety needs of the Fire Department and the limitations of their equipment and those of other emergency vehicles;
      4. requiring that all new industrial, commercial, multifamily and other forms of development apart from single-family homes make adequate provision for on-site parking. Whenever possible, parking shall be at the side or the rear of the building so that a rural appearance is maintained; and
      5. establishing street acceptance standards so that the town will not be required to accept as a town way a subdivision street that did not meet sound construction standards.

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as part of the implementation grant as described above.

Responsibility/Time Frame: same as B.4 (Drafting of land use ordinances)

 

E. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND SERVICES GOAL

Brooklin desires to maintain and expand its public facilities in an orderly manner that assures that all residents and businesses are provided with adequate town services while avoiding any undue increases in property taxes. It aims to minimize the undertaking of new programs and expenditures unless funding is available from growth in the tax base, reallocation of the current budget, or from revenue sources other than the property tax.

Specific policies include:

    1. Town Government: Given the currently projected population growth in Brooklin, the select board form of government shall be maintained. However, the select board shall periodically (every five years) reevaluate the need for a full-time town clerk or a circuit rider (shared or part-time) town manager;

Implementation Strategy:. Self-explanatory

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/every five years

 

2. Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling: Brooklin plans to continue its current arrangements with the Blue Hill-Surry Transfer Station. Given recent increases in transfer station costs, the town shall prepare for changes in operation to the facility and look for ways to increase the rate of recycling.

 

Implementation Strategy:. Town officials will work with the Blue Hill-Surry Transfer Station Committee, the Hancock County Planning Commission and the State Planning Office to explore options for increasing recycling. A recycling committee will be appointed by the select board.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board to appoint committee/annual reports by the committee to the select board.

 

3. Fire Protection: Brooklin aims to assure all residents an adequate level of fire protection at a reasonable cost. Specific policies are divided into three categories: facility and equipment measures; staffing measures; and general safety and prevention measures.

The facility and equipment measures include:

a. replacing the current fire station with a new facility that meets all relevant state and federal standards as well as the needs of the fire department; and

Implementation Strategy:. Steps to replace the station are already underway.

 

b. continuing the regular replacement of trucks and other major pieces of capital equipment.

Implementation Strategy: The fire department needs to make its long-term capital needs known to the select board so that these items can be incorporated into the capital improvement plan.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Fire department & select board/annually

 

Specific staffing measures include:

a. continuing training opportunities for volunteers in areas such as, but not limited to, hazardous materials handling.

Implementation Strategy: This is a continuation of present policy

Responsibility/Time Frame: Fire department/on-going

General safety and prevention measures include:

a. assuring that the subdivision ordinance and other town regulations make adequate provision for water for fire fighting purposes and reflect other fire and safety concerns. The ordinances shall require that developers provide an adequate source of water as deemed necessary by the Fire Department. Specific measures required of developers could include cisterns, fire ponds, and dry hydrants. If it is not possible to locate such facilities on-site, they could be provided off-site within reasonable distance of the development. Developers shall be asked to pay their fair share of the cost through measures such as impact fees for any facilities that may be used by more than one development;

 

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as part of the implementation grant as described above.

Responsibility/Time Frame: same as B.4 (Drafting of land use ordinances)

b. working with the Fire Control Division of the Maine Forest Service to determine what forest management practices could reduce the risk of forest fires and sharing this information with local property owners;

Implementation Strategy: The fire department contacts the Fire Control Division to obtain copies of informational pamphlets for distribution to residents. This will complement the department’s current educational and prevention efforts.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Fire Department/on-going

c. undertaking measures to assure adequate disaster planning for events such as petroleum spills, major accidents, terrorist attacks, severe storms, and multi-structure fires;

Implementation Strategy: This will involve the continuation of coordinated efforts that are already taking place with the county and state emergency planning personnel.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Fire department/on-going

d. enacting and enforcing adequate building and life safety codes for multi-family buildings and all other non-residential uses; and

Implementation Strategy: This will involve enacting model standards that the fire department and select board determine, in consultation with state fire personnel, are appropriate for a town Brooklin’s size. The standards will have to be presented for a town meeting vote.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board and fire department/2004

e. Explore options to improve water supply for fire-fighting purposes throughout town with a particular emphasis in the Naskeag and Flye Point areas.

Implementation Strategy: The fire department identifies the most appropriate locations for fire ponds, dry hydrants or related water supply facilities and requests that the cost of these items be included in the capital improvement program.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Fire department/on-going

4. Police Protection: Given Brooklin's small size, there are no plans to expand police protection. Therefore, the town will continue to rely on the Hancock County Sheriff's Department and State Police for protection.

Implementation Strategy: No further action is necessary

5. Ambulance Service: Brooklin shall work with adjoining towns to assure that ambulance service remains adequate.

Implementation Strategy: No further action is necessary

6. Education: Brooklin desires to offer its children a quality education in a manner that respects the limitations of the town budget. Specifically, the town shall work with the school committee to assure that the Brooklin school can remain open at a time of lower enrollment while also avoiding high per pupil costs. As mentioned under the housing goals, the development of a first time home-buyer neighborhood will help attract families with children of school age to Brooklin.

Implementation Strategy: This is already on-going

7. Town Office Building: The current town office building appears adequate for the foreseeable future. Therefore, the only need is to assure that regular maintenance and upkeep continue.

Implementation Strategy: No further action is necessary.

8. Library: Brooklin is blessed with an outstanding library and the town shall continue its current support for the facility.

Implementation Strategy: This involves a continuation of current town and volunteer support.

9. Old Town Hall building: The town shall explore options for renovating the town hall building and finding new uses for the facility.

Implementation Strategy: The select board forms a committee of residents to explore options for this facility and determine if it is cost-effective to renovate and re-use

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board appoints committee in 2003. It makes its report in 2004.

F. RECREATION and OPEN SPACE GOAL

Brooklin desires to provide an adequate range of recreational programs and activities for all age groups within the limits set by competing municipal budget priorities. Specific policies shall include:

    1. Recreational facilities: assuring adequate maintenance of all town recreational facilities;

Implementation Strategy: This is a continuation of current town policy.

  1. Regional cooperation: Work with other towns on the Blue Hill Peninsula to explore options for a regional community center and various indoor activities for young people;
  2. Implementation Strategy: The recreation committee meets with its counterparts in other towns to monitor progress on plans for a regional center. If proven appropriate and practical, the town co-sponsors grant funding requests to build such a facility and/or fund programs.

    Responsibility/Time Frame: Recreation committee/on-going

  3. Public waterfront access: explore options to improve public waterfront access (see goals under Marine Resources); and
  4. Implementation Strategy: This is addressed under Marine Resources

  5. Open Space: The town identifies key parcels that it recommends be preserved as open space.

Implementation Strategy:. The comprehensive planning committee meets with representatives of the Blue Hill Heritage Trust to develop a strategy to facilitate voluntary land conservation. This will involve establishing criteria for parcels that shall be protected. The majority of these parcels will be in the areas designated as rural in the comprehensive plan. This is discussed in further detail in the Future Land Use Plan. The strategy will involve public meetings with residents to address concerns about the program and steps to assure minimal fiscal impacts on the town due to any reduction in taxable property. Some of the strategy development costs will be funded by the implementation grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Comprehensive planning committee and Blue Hill Heritage Trust/2003-2004 (for strategy development and citizen outreach).

G. MARINE RESOURCES GOAL

Brooklin wishes to protect and enhance its marine resources. Specific policies include:

1. Marine Water Quality: Brooklin wishes to minimize any threats to marine water quality and upgrade current conditions in the town’s harbors. Specific steps include:

    1. working with the DEP to eliminate any remaining overboard discharges;

Implementation Strategy: The town requests funding from the DEP to upgrade any identified overboard discharges that do not meet current state operating standards.

Responsibility/Time Frame: The CEO will note any potential problem areas and report them to the select board who will then request funding from the DEP.

  1. assuring that town regulations sufficiently protect water quality in marine watersheds through development review standards that consider storm water runoff, extent of impervious surface and other non-point sources of pollution;
  2. Implementation Strategy: This will be addressed through the implementation grant.

    Responsibility/Time Frame: Same as B.4 (drafting of land use ordinances)

  3. assessing the need for boat wastewater pump-out facilities in order to reduce any discharges into surface waters from boats;
  4. Implementation Strategy: This will be addressed as part of the Harbor Management Plan (see G.4). If a need is identified, the town contacts the Coastal Program staff at the State Planning Office to determine if funding assistance is currently available.

    Responsibility/Time Frame: Contingent on G.4

  5. enacting measures that regulate boat washing and other activities that may cause water contamination; and

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as part of the harbor management plan.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Contingent on G.4

e. assuring adequate enforcement of existing and proposed town ordinances and regulations affecting water quality.

Implementation Strategy: This will involve an expansion of the CEO’s hours. The increased costs will be offset by increased permit fees.

Responsibility/Time Frame: The select board will assure that the CEO was available for hours adequate to do the job/on-going

2. Public Access: Brooklin desires increased public access opportunities to salt water and the upgrade of its existing facilities. Specific public access policies include:

a. improving parking facilities at existing public access points (see objectives under harbor improvement)

    1. determining if there are any currently unused public rights of way to salt water that could be improved.

Implementation Strategy: The comprehensive planning committee asks the Hancock County Planning Commission to determine if any additional Right of Way Discovery Grants. If funds are available, the committee will recommend to the select board that matching funds be raised. These funds will be used to cover the expenses involved in identifying any rights of way.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Comprehensive planning committee & select board/2002-2004 (if funds are available, otherwise postponement may be necessary)

3. Water Dependent Uses: Brooklin aims to protect its water dependent uses such as boat yards, piers and town landings from incompatible development by incorporating appropriate standards for these areas into its shoreland zoning ordinance. The plan recommends that this zoning be enacted for the town–owned harbor facilities at Naskeag Point.

Implementation Strategy: As part of the implementation grant, the shoreland zoning ordinance will be revised to include a Commercial Fisheries/Maritime Activities District for Naskeag Point. It is important that the need for this district be periodically reviewed since a change in demand for water-dependent uses (such as a collapse of the fishing industry) may make it impractical to retain such a zone in the future.

Responsibility/Time Frame: This will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

4. Harbor Management: Brooklin desires to undertake a comprehensive revitalization of its harbor facilities. This will be done by preparing a harbor management plan. This plan will contain detailed recommendations on how to implement the following:

    1. mooring plans for all town harbors;
    2. creating a harbor committee and hiring a harbor master;
    3. expanding trash collection measures;
    4. developing new parking facilities at all harbors; and
    5. seeking matching grant funds for the construction of piers, floats and ramps at the various public access points used by commercial fishermen and recreational boaters.

 

Implementation Strategy:. Step One: The select board creates a harbor committee, which will contact the Hancock County Planning Commission and/or the State Planning Office to determine what technical assistance resources are available for harbor planning. The committee will oversee the development of a harbor plan.

Step Two: To assure adequate funding of harbor improvements, the town will create a harbor reserve account as part of its capital improvements planning process. Some of the funds for this account will come from current harbor user fees as well as voluntary contributions from the boating community.

Step Three: The harbor committee and harbor master monitor available grants from state agencies (such as the Small Harbor Improvement Program from the MDOT or others from the Maine Coastal Program) and seeks grants for specific harbor-related improvement projects.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board creates harbor committee by 2003, the committee oversees the work/on-going

5. Harbor Ordinance: The plan recommends that a harbor ordinance be enacted, which will address the following topics:

    1. Defining areas where regulations apply;
    2. Speed limits within harbors;
    3. Mooring area rules for residents and non-residents;
    4. Mooring tackle standards;
    5. Town dock rules;
    6. Enforcement provisions; and

g. fees and penalties.

 

Implementation Strategy: The harbor committee, with technical assistance from the Hancock County Planning Commission and the State Planning Office, drafts a harbor ordinance.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Harbor committee/2003-2004

 

 

6. Shellfish restoration: The plan recommends that town officials and the clam committee continue their contacts with the Maine Department of Marine Resources to determine what steps are necessary to open areas currently closed to shell fishing and to explore shellfish seeding operations in newly opened areas.

Implementation Strategy: This is an on-going activity of the clam committee.

H. WATER RESOURCES GOAL

Brooklin desires to maintain, and where needed, restore the quality of its marine and fresh water resources. Specific policies shall include:

1. Non-Point Source Management: Assuring that all town regulations make adequate provisions to manage non-point pollution. Such provisions could include, but are not limited to, minimizing storm water runoff and setting standards for the handling of deleterious matter and hazardous materials at commercial and industrial operations;

Implementation Strategy:. This will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: This will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

    1. Ground Water Protection. Since there are no public water systems in Brooklin, it is important to protect ground water resources. The plan recommends the following measures:

    1. assuring that current minimum lot sizes are retained to allow adequate distances between septic systems and wells; and
    2. including provisions in the proposed subdivision ordinance that give the planning board the authority to require that a hydro-geologic assessment be prepared if there are concerns that a given subdivision may cause water quality or supply problems. There will also be a provision that no subdivision shall increase any contaminant in ground water to more than more than one-half of the Maine Department of Human Services Primary Drinking Water Standards and no more than the Secondary Drinking Water Standards.

Implementation Strategy: These will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: These will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

    1. Marine Water Quality: (These concerns are addressed under the Marine Resources goals).

I. NATURAL RESOURCES GOAL

In recognition of their importance to the economy and overall quality of life, Brooklin desires to protect its natural resources from harmful development. Specific natural resource protection policies include:

 

1. assuring that the subdivision and site plan review ordinances:

a. specifically state the planning board's authority to require developers of major subdivisions to prepare a natural resources assessment as part of their application; and

b. encourage creative lot-layout schemes that allow the preservation of rare natural resources.

Implementation Strategy: These will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: These will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

2. encouraging owners of properties where valuable natural resources are located to consider donating or selling conservation easements to local land conservation groups;

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as described under F.4 (working with the Blue Hill Heritage Land Trust to preserve open space). Key natural resource areas are identified in the future land use plan

3. designating areas with concentrations of wetlands, valuable wildlife habitats and other rare natural features as low-density rural areas in Brooklin's Future Land Use Plan;

Implementation Strategy: This is addressed in the future land use plan.

4. undertaking measures to protect Brooklin's scenic resources. Specific measures include:

a. incorporating standards into the town's subdivision ordinance that encourage lot layout schemes that preserve identified views; and

Implementation Strategy: These will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: These will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

 

b. encouraging the voluntary sale or donation of scenic easements to conservation groups.

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as described under F.4 (working with the Blue Hill Heritage Land Trust to preserve open space). Criteria for scenic areas to be preserved are discussed in the Future Land Use Plan.

 

J. AGRICULTURAL and FOREST RESOURCES GOAL

Brooklin desires to preserve its agricultural and forest resources. Specific policies shall include:

1. including major concentrations of forest land in rural areas;

Implementation Strategy: This will be addressed in the future land use plan.

2. assuring adequate enforcement of current state timber harvesting standards;

Implementation Strategy: The select board or town clerk shall request the latest educational brochures from the Maine Forest Service and have these available at the town office for public distribution.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board or town clerk/by 2002

3. working with farmers that own highly productive agricultural land to take measures to preserve these properties for agricultural use. Specific measures will include the following:

a. designating these areas as rural in Brooklin's future land use plan;

Implementation Strategy: This is addressed in the future land use plan.

b. referring interested farmers to various land conservation groups to whom they could voluntarily sell or donate conservation easements to restrict their land to agricultural uses: and

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished as described under F.4 (working with the Blue Hill Heritage Land Trust to preserve open space)

K. HISTORIC and ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES GOAL

Brooklin desires to protect its key historical and archaeological resources from incompatible development and undertake measures to assure the long-term enhancement of its historical sites and structures. Specific measures will include the following:

1. including in the proposed subdivision ordinance a provision that states specifically that the planning board has the right to require a professional archaeological survey of sites with suspected archaeological resources;

 

Implementation Strategy: These will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: These will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

2. encouraging the Brooklin-Sedgwick Historical Society and the Brooklin Keeping Society to work with the Maine Historic Preservation Commission to:

    1. explore options to conduct a survey of historic archaeological sites with a focus on the earliest European settlement in town as well as survey of properties that may be eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. All such listing will be done on a voluntary basis; and
    2. complete the survey of pre-historic sites within the shoreland area.

 

Implementation Strategy: The comprehensive planning committee will contact these two societies to ascertain their interest in such endeavors.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Historical society and Keeping society/on-going

L. LAND USE GOAL

Brooklin wishes to remain a small, rural town while accommodating new development in an orderly manner that minimizes rapid property tax increases. Specific land use policies include:

1. reviewing this comprehensive plan at least every three years and working continually to implement its recommendations;

Implementation Strategy: The select board and planning board shall meet three years after the adoption of the plan to determine if revisions are needed. One key trigger to determine the need for revisions will be a faster rate of population or housing growth than projected in the Plan. Another trigger will be significant commercial development outside of the current village areas. If the boards so determine, they shall seek technical assistance from agencies such as the State Planning Office and the Hancock County Planning Commission for information on the current state requirements for comprehensive plans and funding resources.

Responsibility/Time Frame: .Select board and planning board/within five years of plan adoption.

    1. assuring adequate and fair enforcement and administration of all town ordinances and regulations;

Implementation Strategy: This will involve an expansion of the CEO’s hours. The increased costs will be offset by increased number of permit and application fees that will result from the increased scope of town ordinances. This step will also involve the CEO working with the DEP to assure that all shoreland zoning standards (especially those related to timber harvesting) are enforced.

Responsibility/Time Frame: The select board will assure that the CEO was available for the hours adequate to do the job/on-going

  1. rather than enacting town-wide zoning at this time, revise the current land use ordinance that specifies minimum lot sizes to reflect the following concerns:

    1. 100 feet of road frontage per lot unless a cluster development provision is used or there is a shared water or wastewater system that meets state standards;
    2. If there is continued commercial development along Route 175, part of the three-year review process of the plan will involve recommendations on limiting future commercial development outside of areas immediately adjacent to existing uses and the villages (see future land use plan);
    3. building setbacks of 25 feet from the edge of traveled portion of existing town ways and 50 feet from the edge of the traveled portion of a state highway; and
    4. minimum side and rear yard setbacks of 15 feet.

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: This will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

    1. Enacting a subdivision ordinance that will increase the planning board’s ability to regulate subdivisions as defined by 30-A MRSA 4401 et. seq. In addition to the various standards mentioned in the previous goals, this ordinance will have the following provisions:

    1. distinguish between minor (4 lots or fewer) and major subdivisions so that a simplified approval process will be available for smaller developments;
    2. contain performance standards for pollution, soil erosion, natural and historic resources, storm water, wetlands and open space;
    3. assure that the developer has adequate financial and technical capacity to complete the development and the town will not be liable for any costs that are the responsibility of the developer;
    4. assure coordination with other town ordinances such as shoreland zoning; and
    5. assure compliance with all state laws

 

Implementation Strategy: This will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant.

Responsibility/Time Frame: This will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

 

5. Undertaking measures to distinguish between growth and rural areas by designating areas remote from main roads as rural.

 

Implementation Strategy: This is addressed in the future land use plan.

6. Enacting a building permit ordinance (that did not contain any building standards) with the following specifications:

      1. a checklist to assure that the builder meets all other applicable town and state regulations such as the minimum lot size, distance between well and septic system, shoreland zoning standards, plumbing permits and curb cuts;
      2. dimensions of the proposed structure and set backs from the lot lines;
      3. estimated cost of the structure for new improvements and substantial exterior improvements beyond regular maintenance or expansion; and
      4. a fee schedule for permits.

 

Implementation Strategy: This will involve the planning board presenting an ordinance for town meeting vote.

Responsibility/time frame: The planning board/ 2003

 

 

M. FISCAL CAPACITY GOAL

Given Brooklin's limited tax base and the heavy burden already faced by property owners, the town desires to promote long-range fiscal planning and avoid unnecessary increases in property taxes. Specific fiscal policies are divided into three categories: development review, alternative funding sources and fiscal planning.

M.1 Development Review

Since the volume and location of development has a direct impact on the costs of providing municipal services, the plan recommends:

1. discouraging major residential subdivisions that will create excessive demands for town services while generating relatively little tax revenue;

2. encouraging the phased approval of any large-scale subdivisions that may place a substantial burden on town services. This may involve approving only a portion of the total number of lots in a given year so that the town has time to expand its services, such as schools, in an orderly manner; and

3. requiring that fiscal impact statements be prepared for those subdivisions that may create a major strain on town finances.

Implementation Strategy: These will be accomplished through the land use ordinance revisions addressed under the Implementation Grant and the Capital Investment Plan.

Responsibility/Time Frame: These will be the same as the other land use ordinance revisions.

 

M.2 Alternative Funding Sources

Since Brooklin remains very dependent on the property tax to pay for most municipal service costs, the plan recommends the following measures to develop other funding sources:

1. charging user fees for certain town services if proven equitable for all parties involved; and

Implementation Strategy: This has to be decided by the select board on a case-by-case basis.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/on-going

2. actively seeking state and federal grants to pay for at least a portion of the cost of new capital facilities. Such projects shall be listed in the capital investment plan.

Implementation Strategy: Grant funding sources are identified under the appropriate topic throughout these implementation strategies.

 

M.3 Fiscal Planning

Long range planning and coordination of expenditures are one way to minimize increases in municipal government costs. The plan recommends the following measures:

1. exploring options for shared municipal services with other Blue Hill Peninsula towns;

Implementation Strategy: The select board contacts its counterparts in surrounding towns to discuss possible arrangements.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/within two years of plan adoption

    1. developing a Capital Investment Program (CInP) that will be revised annually. The CInP will be an advisory document, which will summarize planned major capital expenditures in Brooklin over a six-year period. The final say on all expenditures will remain with the voters at town meeting; and

Implementation Strategy:. The initial planning of this endeavor will be part of the town’s implementation grant. This will involve developing forms and procedures to solicit input from various town boards and committees. It will be updated annually.

Responsibility/Time Frame: Select board/on-going

3. continuing to use capital reserve accounts so that funds can be accumulated for anticipated capital expenditures and for the local funding match for various state and federal grants.

Implementation Strategy:. This is already occurring by the select board and will be expanded.

 

N. REGIONAL COORDINATION GOAL

Brooklin encourages regional coordination when it is of mutual benefit to all parties involved. Specific regional coordination recommendations were cited elsewhere in this section. Rather than repeat them here, the appropriate policies are identified below.

SUMMARY OF POLICIES REQUIRING REGIONAL COORDINATION

Topic Supporting Policies

Economy

B.2

Housing

C.3 & C.4

Transportation

D.2

Public Services and Facilities

E.2, E.5

Recreation

F.2

Fiscal Capacity

M.1

O. CONSISTENCY OF BROOKLIN’S POLICIES WITH THE STATE GOALS AND COASTAL POLICIES

The Maine State Planning Office, per the requirements of the Growth Management Act, evaluates plans for their consistency with the ten growth management goals and the nine coastal policies. The consistency of each state goal and policy with the policies of the Comprehensive Plan is summarized in the matrixes below.

 

MAINE'S GROWTH MANAGEMENT GOALS

1. To encourage orderly growth and development in appropriate areas of each community, while protecting the State's rural character, making efficient use of public services and preventing development sprawl.

Related Policies: D.5 (Transportation) L.1-3 (Land Use) M.1-3 (Fiscal Capacity)

2. To plan for, finance and develop an efficient system of public facilities and services to accommodate anticipated growth and economic development.

Related Policies: E.1-8 (Public Services), M.1-3 (Fiscal Capacity)

3. To promote an economic climate that increases job opportunities and overall economic well-being.

Related Policies: B.1-5 (Economy)

4. To encourage and promote affordable, decent housing opportunities for all Maine citizens.

Related Policies: C.1-4 (Housing)

5. To protect the quality and manage the quantity of the State's water resources, including lakes, aquifers, great ponds, estuaries, rivers and coastal areas.

Related Policies: G.1(Marine Resources) H.1-4 (Water Resources)

6. To protect the State's other critical natural resources, including, without limitation, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries habitat, sand dunes, shorelands, scenic vistas, and unique natural areas.

Related Policies: G.1 (Marine Resources) H.1-4 (Water Resources) I.1-5 (Natural Resources)

7. To protect the State's marine resources industry, ports, and harbors from incompatible development, and to promote access to the shore for commercial fishermen and the public.

Related Policies: G.1-G.3 (Marine Resources)

8. To safeguard the State's agricultural and forest resources from development which threatens those resources.

Related Policies: J.1-3 (Agriculture and Forest Resources)

 

9. To preserve the State's historic and archeological resources.

Related Policies: (Historic and Archaeological Resources).

10. To promote and protect the availability of outdoor recreation opportunities for all Maine citizens, including access to surface waters.

Related Policies: F.1-5(Recreation) and G.2 (Marine Resource-Public Access)

 

 

MAINE'S COASTAL POLICIES

1. Port and harbor development. Promote the maintenance, development and revitalization of the State's ports and harbors for fishing, transportation and recreation.

Related Policies: G.2 (Marine Resources)

2. Marine resource management. Manage the marine environment and its related resources to preserve and improve the ecological integrity and diversity of marine communities and habitats, to expand our understanding of the productivity of the Gulf of Maine and coastal waters, and to enhance the economic value of the State's renewable marine resources.

Related Policies: G.1 (Marine Resources)

3. Shoreline management and access. Support shoreline management that gives preference to water dependent uses over other uses, that promotes public access to the shoreline, and that considers the cumulative effects of development on coastal resources.

Related Policies: G.1-2 (Marine Resources)

4. Hazard Area Development. Discourage growth and new development in coastal areas where, because of coastal storms, flooding, landslides or sea level rise, it is hazardous to human health and safety.

Related Policies: (This is addressed through existing shoreland and floodplain ordinances)

5. State and local cooperative management. Encourage and support cooperative state and municipal management of coastal resources.

Related Policies: G.1.a&c (Marine Resources)

6. Scenic and natural areas protection. Protect and manage critical habitat and natural areas of state and national significance and maintain the scenic beauty and character of the coast even in areas where development occurs.

Related Policies: I.5 (Natural Resources)

7. Recreation and tourism. Expand the opportunities for outdoor recreation and encourage appropriate coastal tourist activities and development.

Related Policies: F.1 -5 (Recreation)

8. Water Quality. Restore and maintain the quality of our fresh, marine and estuarine waters to allow for the broadest possible diversity of public and private uses.

Related Policies: G.1 (Marine Resources)H.1-4 (Water Resources)

9. Air Quality. Restore and maintain coastal air quality to protect the health of citizens and visitors and to protect enjoyment of the natural beauty and maritime characteristics of the Maine coast.

Related Policies: B.3 (Economy)

 

 

 

 

II.B. FUTURE LAND USE PLAN

1. Introduction

This future land use plan presents a vision of how Brooklin residents want their town to grow. The plan should represent a balance among the wishes of residents to preserve rural character and historic and natural resources, while also allowing reasonable opportunities for future growth and economic development. Through careful planning, Brooklin can accommodate all anticipated growth while also avoiding the excessive increases in property taxes that can result from poorly planned development.

Specifically, this section:

a. estimates the amount of land needed for future growth;

b. proposes a future development scheme for Brooklin; and

c. recommends growth and rural areas.

2. Land Needed for Future Development

The Existing Land Use chapter assumed that Brooklin will need just under 130 acres of land for new development between 2001 and 2011. The town has ample land to accommodate this growth. Table L.3 in the Existing Land Use chapter shows that there are about 4,358 acres of vacant land with soils that are suitable for development. The issue is not the likely rate of development, since this amount is moderate, but where and how the development that does occur will take place.

3. A Future Development Scheme for Brooklin

Brooklin is a small, peninsular town with a largely undeveloped interior. Most recent development has taken place along the shore or other roads around the town’s perimeter. It also has five village areas.

The future development scheme aims to retain Brooklin's rural character while providing adequate room for residential, commercial and marine-dependent development. The scheme tries to assure all landowners a reasonable return from using or selling their land and to provide adequate opportunities for first-time homebuyers to live in the town. The plan thus represents many compromises among the various interests in town. The proposed future land use scheme for Brooklin is shown on Map 4.

It is important to review and, if necessary revise this scheme every few years. As the town changes, it may need more land for a given use. For example, if there is more residential development than is presently expected, the plan should be amended to reflect this trend.

The future land use plan is not a zoning ordinance and has no binding affect on landowners. If the town revises its site plan review ordinance and enacts a subdivision ordinance, the changes should be based on the recommendations of the comprehensive plan. Any land use ordinance changes will require a town meeting vote separate from a vote to adopt the comprehensive plan.

A. The Villages

The Brooklin-Center Harbor village area should remain a major focus of new development. The current mixture of commercial, public (such as the school, library and town office) and residential uses should continue. North Brooklin and West Brooklin also should continue as village areas. The Naskeag and Flye Point areas also have development potential. These areas have relatively good soils and are off of Route 175 but are still within easy access of this road. Since they are close to the shore, they are a popular place for residential construction. The areas thus offer an opportunity for a country life style while not being overly remote from services. Poor soils in the West Brooklin areas limit its potential to accommodate significant additional growth.

 

B. The Shoreline

As mentioned in the Inventory and Analysis, the shorefront areas have attracted considerable development in recent years. The plan recommends that the minimum high water line set back be increased from 75 to 100 feet and that the water frontage requirement be increased from 150 to 200 feet. The recommended extension of the shoreland zoning boundaries is from from the current 250-foot range to 3500 feet.

Other recommended changes include establishing side and road front lot minimum setbacks of 25 feet. There will be a road frontage requirement of 100 feet. The plan recommends that the current timber harvesting standards that apply within the 75 foot setback be increased to include all land within 100 feet of the shore. There will also be a 35-foot building height restriction. The purpose of these changes is to minimize the visual impact of new residential structures on the shore. In order to manage the impacts of larger homes, the current lot coverage requirement of 20 percent shall include all impervious surfaces. Under this definition driveways and other finished surfaces will be considered in the lot coverage standards.

Due to the importance of Naskeag Point as a working harbor, the plan recommends that the town-owned property in this area be zoned as a water-dependent use. This will restrict this area to marine-related occupations. The purpose of this recommendation is to avoid having this area converted to a non-marine use. As with all zoning changes, this provision can be revisited in the future.

C. Interior Areas

The interior areas have relatively few roads and large expanses of poor soils. Continued development in these areas could result in costly upgrades of roads and extensions of school bus service. These areas are most suited for natural resource type uses such as farming and forestry and very limited residential development.

4. Growth and Rural Areas

The determination of growth and rural areas is an important part of the comprehensive planning process. Growth areas are those parts of town where most new growth is desired to occur. It is important not to have overly large growth areas in order to maintain the town's rural character. Conversely, there must be sufficient land to allow for some unanticipated growth.

Brooklin’s primary growth areas are the five villages. These are North Brooklin, Brooklin village (Center Harbor), West Brooklin and Flye and Naskeag Points. The rest of town is designated either shoreland or rural (see Map 4).

5. Measures to Distinguish Growth and Rural Areas

Brooklin does not plan to enact town-wide zoning at this time. Rather, it proposes a mixture of regulatory and non-regulatory measures to encourage growth in its villages so that less growth occurs elsewhere. The regulatory measures are revisions to the site plan review ordinance and enactment of a subdivision ordinance.

The subdivision ordinance will require that new lots have their frontage on new, rather than existing roads wherever possible. This will reduce the number of curb cuts on existing roads and help retain a rural appearance throughout town. While the plan recommends that town not accept new subdivision roads as town ways in rural areas, the town will accept the road for the affordable housing subdivision and other subdivisions in growth areas, if built to town standards.

The major non-regulatory measure to encourage growth in growth areas is the affordable housing neighborhood proposal discussed under the housing goals. This will act as an incentive to bring people into a growth area by providing affordable housing rather than discourage construction through regulatory measures in the rural areas.

The town will also undertake other measures to make the growth areas, particularly, the Brooklin-Center Harbor village more attractive to development. As mentioned under the Transportation goals, priority will be given to improving town roads in growth areas. Other measures addressed in these goals include improving off-street parking opportunities and maintaining cross walks at the library and other areas with high pedestrian traffic. By creating a more pedestrian friendly environment, the growth areas should become more attractive to commercial retail development. These incentive measures are preferable to using land use regulations to restrict commercial uses elsewhere in town.

The town will also work with area land trusts to facilitate the placing of land in undeveloped areas into voluntary conservation easements. Given the financial limitations of most land trusts and limited land owner interest, it is unlikely that a large volume of land will be placed in conservation easements. It should be possible, however, to protect certain key parcels. The plan recommends that priority be given to the following types of land: productive farm and blueberry land, areas with scenic views as identified in the comprehensive plan, the islands, prime parcels of undeveloped shoreland and the large parcels of forest land away from the main roads. This is one of the major measures proposed in the plan to protect resources in rural area while avoiding regulatory measures that actively discourage growth. Comprehensive planning committee members have already met with the Blue Hill Heritage Trust to discuss this process.

The poor soils and remoteness of the rural areas will also discourage growth. The cost of road building and extending other services into rural areas will make it very expensive to build in these areas. As discussed in the Goals and Objectives chapter, developers will be responsible for off-site road improvements that are required as a result of the traffic their development is likely to generate.

6. Summary

The future land use plan respects Brooklin’s historical development pattern by facilitating growth in the villages while discouraging growth in the more remote, rural areas. It minimizes restrictions on individual property rights by focussing more on non-regulatory techniques. It is aimed at minimizing future town expenditures due to development in areas that are costly to provide with municipal services while preserving the town’s high quality of life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX I

 

 

 

 

 

PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY

AND

WORKSHOP RESULTS

 

 

 

 

BROOKLIN COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SURVEY

If a second person in a household wishes to respond, please use a different color ink.

A. GENERAL INFORMATION

  1. Are you a seasonal or year-round resident?

a. 164 / 65.3% year-round b. 81 / 32.3% seasonal c. 5 / 2.0% neither

Seasonal Residents Only:

2. How many months/year do you live in Brooklin? _____

  1. month or less 17 / 6.8%
  2. 2 months 24 / 6.8
  3. 3 months or more 47 / 18.7%
  1. Do you plan to make Brooklin your permanent residence?
  2. a. 46 / 18.3% yes b. 34 / 13.5% no

  3. If yes, when:
  4. a. 21 / 8.4% next 5 years b. 15 / 6.0% 10 years

    c. 8 / 3.2% 15 years d. 13 / 5.2% other

  • How long have you lived in Brooklin?
  • a. 11 / 4.4% less than one year d. 51 / 20.3% 10-20 years

    b. 38 / 15.1% 1-5 years e. 105 / 41.8% 20+ years

    c. 37 / 14.7% 6-10 years

    Do you:

    a. 234 / 93.2% own your dwelling

    b. 9 / 3.6% rent your dwelling

    What kind of dwelling do you live in?

    a.2 / 0.8% apartment c.225 / 89.6% single family house

    b.9 / 3.6%% mobile home d. 12 / 4.8% other

    During the next 5 years, do you expect to:

    a. 8 / 3.2% move from Brooklin? d. 24 / 9.6% build a residence in Brooklin?

    b. 5 / 2.0% sell your home? e. 4 / 1.6% subdivide land in Brooklin?

    c. 6 / 2.4% sell undeveloped land within Brooklin? f. 10 / 4.0% start a business in Brooklin?

    B. ADEQUACY OF EXISTING SERVICES AND FACILITIES

    1. Please check your opinion of the following:

     

    Would you support

    improving or expanding

    through increased local taxes?

     

    Adequate

    Needs Improvement

    Not Sure

    Yes

    No

      1. Fire protection

    72.5%

    8.4%

    15.5%

    42.8%

    20.0%

    1. Recreational facilities

    6.4%

    29.5%

    15.5%

    28.3%

    33.1%

  • Recreational programs
  • 39.0%

    23.5%

    30.3%

    25.5%

    32.7%

  • Ambulance
  • 56.2%

    12.7%

    25.5%

    32.7%

    23.5%

  • Road maintenance
  • 54.2%

    36.3%

    4.8%

    37.8%

    24.7%

  • Snow removal/sanding
  • 70.5%

    8.8%

    16.7%

    22.4%

    29.6%

  • Public schools
  • 61.4%

    9.2%

    24.7%

    32.3%

    20.7%

  • Police protection
  • 49.0%

    24.3%

    20.7%

    30.7%

    29.5%

  • Code enforcement
  • 47.4%

    19.1%

    26.7%

    23.1%

    31.5%

  • Public access to the shore
  • 42.2%

    41.4%

    12.0%

    35.9%

    26.3%

  • Town docking facilities
  • 34.7%

    39.0%

    20.3%

    31.5%

    29.1%

  • Library
  • 95.2%

    0.4%

    0.8%

    23.5%

    28.3%

  • Town office
  • 81.7%

    9.2%

    4.8%

    17.5%

    34.3%

  • Youth services
  • 45.8%

    17.1%

    30.3%

    30.1%

    23.7%

  • Elderly services
  • 24.7%

    21.1%

    47.8%

    26.3%

    25.1%

  • Solid waste disposal
  • 55.0%

    21.5%

    17.1%

    20.7%

    33.1%

  • Pedestrian facilities
  • 41.0%

    31.1%

    20.3%

    26.3%

    30.3%

    1. Do you feel that any of the following is a problem:

    Yes No Yes No

      1. Job opportunities 23.1% 55.8% f. Population growth 28.8% 56.0%
      2. Affordable housing 39.8% 40.6% g. Potable water 15.6% 65.6%
      3. Summer traffic 39.7% 49.0% h. Air or water quality 14.7% 68.5%
      4. Property taxes 26.3% 57.0% i. Parking 19.1% 67.7%
      5. Public transportation 34.3% 49.8% j. Other (specify)
    1. Would you support the hiring of a harbor master, to be paid for through local tax dollars?

    a. 23.9% yes b. 39.4% no c. 32.3% undecided

    4. Do you feel that the town government is responsive to your needs? 81.3% Yes 8.8% No

    1. FUTURE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    1. In the next ten years, would you like Brooklin’s population to:
    2. a. 78.1% stay the same b.10.0% increase c. 6.8% decrease

    3. If population growth does occur, should town ordinances encourage any of the following
    4. types of housing?

    Yes No Undecided

    a. single family houses 78.5% 10.0% 5.6%

    b. duplexes 21.1% 51.8% 12.7%

    c. apartments 17.9% 54.2% 13.9%

    d. affordable housing 57.4% 24.7% 10.4%

    e. mobile homes on individual lots 21.9% 53.0% 12.4%

    f. cluster (or open space) housing 31.9% 41.4% 15.9%

  • State law requires the town to permit mobile home parks, but it does give towns some discretion as to where they may be located. In which of the following areas of town do you think that mobile home parks should be allowed? Please check only one.
  • a. 10.8% anywhere in town e. 7.6% along major roads

    b. 13.2% remote rural areas f. 3.2% anywhere but near built up residential areas

    c. 2.0% adj't to commercial areas g. 51.6% in as few places in town as possible

    d. 2.4% other

    1. If Brooklin continues to grow, where would you prefer to see most of the development take place?

     

    Anywhere in town

    In specifically designated areas

    Close to the village centers

    Nowhere in town

    Undecided

    1. Residential
    2. Commercial (retail & service)
    3. Light manufacturing operations
    4. heavy industrial operations

    63.7%

    12.0%

    12.7%

    2.8%

    17.5%

    22.7%

    50.6%

    24.7%

    7.2%

    50.6%

    6.4%

    1.2%

    4.0%

    8.0%

    19.9%

    62.5%

    5.2%

    4.0%

    7.2%

    4.4%

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1. Do you support development of ordinances and/or other measures (i.e., voluntary conservation easements) to protect the following:

    Yes No Undecided

    a. agricultural land 76.9% 14.3% 4.4%

    b. forest land 76.1% 15.5% 4.4%

    c. tree growth 70.9% 16.7% 6.8%

    d. wildlife habitat 81.3% 12.7% 3.6%

    Yes No Undecided

    e. aquifers 76.5% 10.8% 6.8%

    f. wetlands 78.9% 12.0% 4.4%

    g. scenic views 81.3% 10.8% 5.6%

    h. protection/restoration

    of shellfish areas 90.8% 3.2% 4.0%

  • Would you support policies that promote harbor development for the following:
  • Yes No Undecided

    a. commercial fishing 61.0% 21.9% 12.7%

    b. recreational boating 58.6% 25.9% 10.0%

    c. marine support serv. 49.0% 22.3% 20.3%

    d. Other (specify)

    Yes No Undecided

    e. fish processing &

    aqua-culture 13.1% 70.1% 10.8%

    f. residential 29.1% 48.6% 15.1%

     

  • Brooklin is fortunate to still have a substantial amount of undeveloped shoreland property. Should the town enact additional measures to assure that development in the shoreland
  • zone respects this area’s natural features?

    a. 79.7% Yes b. 10.8% No c. 8.4% Undecided

  • Would you like to have bike lanes on Route 175?
  • a. 63.7% Yes b. 25.9% No c. 10.0% Undecided

  • Do you feel that other improvements are needed to Route 175?
  • a. 51.8% Yes b. 27.5% No c. 15.5% Undecided

  • How important is maintaining the rural way of life in Brooklin?
  • a. 95.2% Very important b. 2.4% Not very important c. 0.4% Unimportant

     

     

    INDEX FOR COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

    TOWN OF BROOKLIN

    This index indicates where the proposed plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Planning and Land Use Regulation Act (30-A M.R.S.A. Section 4326).

    Requirements

    1. Inventory and analysis Section

    A. Population A1-A8

    B. Economy B1-B7

    C. Housing C1-C12

    D. Public Facilities and Transportation D1-E9

    E. Recreation F1-F5

    F. Marine Resources (if applicable) G1-G4

    G. Water Resources H1-H3

    H. Critical Natural Resources I1-I4

    I. Agricultural and Forestry Resources J1-J5

    J. Historic and Archeological Resources K1-K6

    K. Land Use L1-L7

    L. Fiscal Capacity M1-M6

    M. Summary of Findings N1-N4

    2. Policy Development Section

    A. Orderly Growth and Development II-1, II-18, II-20

    B. Public Facilities II-7 - II-11

    C. Economic Climate II-1 - II-2

    D. Affordable Housing II-2 - II-4

    E. Water Resources II-14 - II-15

    F. Critical Natural Resources II-15 - II-16

    G. Marine Resources (if appliable) II-11 - II-14

    H. Agricultural and Forest Resources II-17 - II-18

    I. Historic and Archeological Resources II-17 - II-18

    J. Outdoor Recreation II-10 - II-11

    K. Coastal Policies (if applicable) II-24 - II-25

    3. Land Use Plan/Designation of Growth and Rural Areas II-26 – II-29

    4. Implementation Strategy Section

    A. Affordable Housing II-2 – II-4

    B. Public Services II-7 – II-10

    C. Historic and Archeological Resources II-17 – II-18

    D. Outdoor Recreation Opportunities II-10 – 11-11

    E. Agricultural and Forestry Resources II-17

    F. Marine Resources (if applicable) II-11 – II-14

    G. Water Resources II-14 – II-15

    H. Critical Natural Resources II-15 – II-16

    I. Zoning Strategy II-18 – 11-20, II-26 – II-29

    J. Capital Investment Strategy II-7 – II-10

    5. Regional Coordination Program II-22 – II-23